Check out the tiobe index (google for it). Pick a programming language on the list other than python. Where is it on the list of popular languages compared to python and how has it changed over time? Compare it’s programming features or coding style to python. Compare the two languages’ programming features such as compiled vs interpreted languages, procedural/imperative/declarative/functional programming, types (is it dynamic or static typing?), how are blocks done (indent, curly braces, other), etc. Write a sample piece of code (to the best of your ability) that demonstrates an inch to cm converter and compare it to the python version. Research an open-source software project and determine what programming language was used to develop the application. Why was this language chosen, or what made this a good programming language choice? Examine some of the sample code for one of the functions or modules of this project. Comment on the code and see if you understand what it is trying to do. Include a copy of that function or module code in your paper’s appendix.
Methylphenidate (amphetamine), an inhibitor which follows up on the noradrenergic and dopaminergic frameworks utilized in the treatment of consideration shortage hyperactivity issue (ADHD), has been generally refered to in Bioethicist writing as having the capacity to enhance psychological capacity in solid people (Husain and Mehta, 2011). Methylphenidate is broadly utilized a wake advancing operator amid preparing, in understudies to in the expect to build their levels and in numerous scholarly experts to keep up their execution. In any case, the impacts of psychological upgrade by methylphenidate are fairly unassuming and expansive measure of changeability exists between people. In patients with ADHD methylphenidate medications, for example, Ritalin, perform well advancing consideration; likewise, in sound people an enhancement is viewed as Ritalin helps spatial working memory execution and enhances official capacities in novel undertakings (Mehta et al., 2000; Elliot et al., 1997). In the examination of the impacts of Ritalin through PET outputs Mehta et al., (2000) passed on that methylphenidate initiated a decrease of blood stream in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, expanding execution precision in spatial working memory assignments ( SWM) (Owen et al., 1996). SWM is confined in the prefrontal cortex, where harm to this territory will prompt debilitation in SWM undertakings (Murphy et al., 1996). This proposes the expansion of visual consideration and enhancement for visual working memory undertakings might be because of the particular tweak impacts of methylphenidate on the parietal, frontal and additional striate occipital areas a finding synonymous with early examination into monkeys and monoaminergic regulation of psychological capacities (Bernardi et al., 1982). In any case, ongoing investigation into fMRI and DCM contemplates on the mind indicate noradrenergic frameworks can impact neuronal sensitivity in districts occupied with tactile preparing and visuospatial consideration, in this manner proposing that maybe methylphenidate is less explicit and influences useful availability over the cerebrum arrange (Grefkes, 2010). The neural instruments by which, methylphenidate impacts are fundamentally obvious in the CNS; where the centralization of dopamine and norepinephrine in the mind is caused by the hindering their reuptakes-consequently expanding the outflow of the dopamine transporter DAT and obstructing of the monoamine transporter 2. By doing as such lessening movement of monoamine oxidase and expanding the statement of tyrosine hydroxylase is hindered (Fibiger et al., 1971). Where dimensions of DAT are high in ADHD patients, initiating Ritalin reestablishes catecholamine and adjusts dopaminergic terminating frameworks, in this way lessening synaptic transmission on the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors (Goldstein et al., 2000). Therefore dopamine levels would be diminished and standardize insufficiencies and enhance focus. An unmistakable case of this is appeared in Volkow et al., (2012) , where methylphenidate given orally squares 60% of DAT locales while expanding dopamine fixations in the striatum ( by 8% to 16%) lessening hyperactivity in ADHD patients. Be that as it may, in typical patients the admission of methamphetamine could result in a DAT overexpression or hypo-dopaminergic movement and could prompt improved perception. Furthermore, the drawn out utilization of methylphenidate could result in the descending control of dopamine D2 receptors and take-up destinations, like the fortification impacts in amphetamines like cocaine, stressing imprudent conduct like betting and hyper sexuality (Voltz, 2008 and Cools.,2007). Furthermore, hypodopemenergic action inside the basal ganglia could prompt automatic developments (Dyskinesia) usually hard to test the neuro-upgrade in solid people caused by methylphenidate. All in all psychological procedures one would subsume an improvement would be on the enthusiastic, persuasive and intellectual capacities inside sound people. Not at all like different medications, for example, AChEI (utilized in the treatment of the neurodegenerative illness Alzheimer's) the place Emre etal., (2004) and McKeith et al.,(2000) pass on constructive outcomes of AChEI on insight and neuropsychiatric estimates, for example, mind-set , nervousness and visual visualizations the utilization of methylphenidate passes on very humble outcomes on psychological improvement (Mehta et al., 2011). Albeit past research by Rependatis (2010), found the utilization of methylphenidate builds memory, there was no reliable proof to help a significant impact. Moreover, however Mehta et al ., (2000) conveyed that Ritalin improved spatial working memory, a finding bolstered by Elliot et al., (1997). In any case, in an ongoing investigation Mehta et al (2011) credits past discoveries to the difference of standard capacity. The plenty of research encompass the impact of methylphenidate is generally conflicting and there is little proof to recommend methylphenidate can be utilized as a subjective enhancer. Contrariwise to mainstream thinking, there has been proof to recommend that methylphenidate could really weaken past intellectual capacities (Schaaf et al.,, 2013 ). In testing the impacts of Ritalin on remuneration and discipline learning in solid understudies, Schaaf et al., (2013), passed on that the impact of Ritalin on pattern spatial working memory undertakings shifted regarding assignments and request between people. Despite the fact that, methylphenidate enhanced reward and discipline conduct in high working memory subjects, it debilitated those with low working memory . These conflicting outcomes might be halfway because of the reversed U shape, whereby dopamine D1 enemy can specifically adjust psychological procedures, for example, SWM. Over the top dimensions of D1 in the prefrontal cortex can weaken working memory (Vijayraghavan et al.,2007). Notwithstanding, antagonistic impacts of methylphenidate can likewise been seen in rehashed utilize ( Lapworth et al.,2009). Lapworth et al., (2009) propose that methylphenidate is related with antagonistic vibe, animosity, and crazy indications in rehashed clients, where the rehashed utilization of methylphenidate expands "positive insane manifestations that add to an impression of the earth as an unfriendly and compromising spot and in addition by expanding impulsivity". The unwavering quality and legitimacy of the previously mentioned research comes into setting when taking a gander at the strategies for testing the psychological impacts of methylphenidate on sound people. A huge collection of research needs substance and is to a great extent uncertain do to the inconstancy in techniques, furthermore the generalizability credited to methylphenidate be taken with a sensible measure of wise concern (Tucha O,2006) . So far there have been no thorough concentrated in ordinary subjects demonstrating a reasonable impact of methylphenidate as a psychological enhancer. An essential imperfection in research is generally clear in an absence of state administered testing techniques. For instance, In ADHD patients there is a reasonable lack which one can target and enhance to standardize pattern dimensions of hyperactivity be that as it may, in ordinary people there is no benchmark. How one analyze against a "standard of improvement" when there does is no standard for which to look at. Furthermore, when utilizing techniques, for example, SWM It's hard to subsume that the adjustment in comprehension is because of methylphenidate as opposed to other subjective procedures. A specialist is yet to have the capacity to pinpoint the wellspring of impact as the cerebrum includes a procedure of complex, interlinked systems. An exemplary case of this exists in Mehta et al (2000) research to test the impacts of methylphenidate. Members were given a spatial working memory errand, tried with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery Test (CANTAB). Results demonstrated the reliant factors like spatial memory were improved by the IV (Mehta et al 2001). Be that as it may, in a later report Mehta et al (2011), credited the discoveries to the impact sizes, where normal appraisals for the impact of ADHD are created via guardian and parent reactions, hence they are not right strategies for investigation for intellectual impacts rather they pass on conduct impacts. Besides, the greater part of research exhibited on methylphenidate does not decently examine the negative impacts with inciting methylphenidate, rather Elliot et al., (1979) simply center around the constructive outcomes and don't report any negative symptoms, in this manner bringing about an inclination depiction of the in general psychological impacts of methylphenidate. In addition on further examination of the writing it is likewise apparent that there is an extensive dissimilarity in the term of the preliminaries displayed and the measurements of methylphenidate given. For example Mehta et al.,(2000) utilizes very nearly 20 mg more than Elliot et al., (1979) and Reprantis et al., (2000). In a bigger setting the unwavering quality of methylphenidate as a psychological enhancers is to some degree constrained because of an entire absence of proof and questionable testing strategies. Research would profit by further examination to enhance standard baselines and techniques for correlation inside pharmacology. References Bernardi, G., Cherubini, E., Marciani, M.G., Mercuri, N., Stanzione, P. (1982) Responses of intracellularly recorded cortical neurons to the ionto-phoretic utilization of dopamine. Cerebrum Res 245:267– 274. Cools R (2007). Hasty identity predicts dopamine-subordinate changes in frontostriatal movement amid part procedures of working memory. J. Neurosci.27:5506– 5514. Emre, M., Aarsland, D., Albanese, A., Byrne, E. J., Deuschl, G., De Deyn, P. P., … and Lane, R. (2004). Rivastigmine for dementia related with Parkinson's malady. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(24), 2509-2518. Elliott, R., Sahakian, B. J., Matthews, K., Bannerjea, A., Rimmer, J., and Robbins, T. W. (1997). Impacts of methylphenidate on spatial working memory and arranging in solid youthful grown-ups. Psychopharmacology, 131(2), 196-206. Fibiger, H. C., and McGeer, E. G. (1971). Impact of intense and interminable methamphetamine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase action in mind>GET ANSWER