A New Look at Old Southeast Asia
Craig J. Reynolds
1. What is the SEA cultural matrix (what different cultural influences are evident)?
2. What are two indigenous state forms mentioned in the article?
3. What are the features of the state as Negara?
4. Which empire that we have studied would exemplify the notion of “state-as-mandala,” and why?
5. What is the SEA notion of charisma?
6. Why does the author claim that in order to understand Southeast Asian history we should NOT ignore the influences of outside cultures such as India or China?
Looking at Southeast Asian History
D.G. E. Hall
1. What are some of the main cultural divisions in Southeast Asia (SEA)?
2. What early empire is credited with bringing Indian culture into SEA?
3. What are the four Theravada Buddhist Kingdoms?
4. Why did SEA rulers import Indian culture?
5. Who is the Maharaj and what did he represent?
6. Where did Islam make its first impact in SEA and where did the missionaries come from that brought it?
7. What is distinctive about Chinese concerns in SEA?
Assess the Technological Solutions Available to Ameliorate Global Warming Presentation A dangerous atmozspheric devation has been turned out to be the immediate aftereffect of anthropogenic causes or man-made intercessions with nature. Beginning with the Industrial Revolution of the late eighteenth Centuary, advances have been produced that brought about the collection of ozone harming substances in the climate which trap the sun's brilliant vitality. This improved nursery impact progressively raises the world's surface temperatures and is anticipated to make unpredictable natural conditions, to be specific: the softening of polar ice tops, ascending of ocean level, significant horticultural changes coming about because of environmental change, termination of species, unusual climate conditions, expanded occurrence of tropical ailments, vanishing of biological specialties and interruption of drinking water supply, ("Global Warming," 2004). Since a worldwide temperature alteration offers an incredible potential to make calamitous consequences for the earth all in all, it turns into a worldwide issue, requiring the association of the entire universal network in discovering approaches to improve its antagonistic impacts, (Baird, 2006). Worldwide ozone harming substance discharges that are causing an Earth-wide temperature boost originate from various divisions. Figure I beneath demonstrates the worldwide ozone depleting substance outflows by division information: Land utilize change and ranger service contribute the most astounding ozone harming substance emanation rate (19%); trailed by power (16%); farming (14%); transport (13%); other fuel ignition (11%); assembling and development (10%); squander (4%); and mechanical (3%) and joined warmth and power (3%). The Pew Center on Global Climate Change (Undated, p. 1) affirms that "on the grounds that there are such a significant number of wellsprings of these gases, there are additionally numerous choices for lessening emanation." This paper assesses the accessible innovative answers for improve a dangerous atmospheric devation by showing the favorable circumstances and burdens of every choice. Additionally, such arrangements will be displayed on a sectoral premise, beginning with land utilize, ranger service and agribusiness; trailed by power, lastly by the transportation division. Land Use, Forestry and Agriculture Sector Technology Land utilize and ranger service innovation incorporates carbon bookkeeping, sequestration, and biofuel creation. 1. Carbon Accounting and Sequestration As indicated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or IPCC (2000), carbon stock improvement from land utilize, arrive – utilize change and ranger service exercises are reversible and along these lines require cautious bookkeeping. Carbon bookkeeping innovation, which includes arrive based bookkeeping and action based bookkeeping, gives exact and straightforward information on carbon stocks or potentially changes in ozone harming substance emanations by sources and expulsions by sink. These information are required to survey consistence with the duties under the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, carbon bookkeeping will help decide applicable carbon pools that can be utilized in the generation of an elective wellspring of fuel, for example, biofuels. Changes in carbon stocks can be in fact decided with the utilization of action information, remote-detecting systems, models got from factual examination, transition estimation, soil testing and environmental reviews. Be that as it may, the expense of carbon bookkeeping increments as exactness and scene heterogeneity expands, (IPCC, 2000). Because of watchful carbon bookkeeping, overabundance carbon would then be able to be caught or sequestered to be used as fuel source. A case of carbon sequestration innovation is the Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle Process or IGCC, which takes into consideration simple sequestration of carbon for long haul stockpiling in underground land developments. Be that as it may, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change (Undated), alerts that further research is expected to test the suitability of expansive scale underground stockpiling of carbon in a long haul scale. 2. Biofuel Technology Biofuel generation or biomass gasification guarantees bring down ozone depleting substance outflow levels by changing over waste wood and biomass into biofuels that could supplant non-renewable energy sources. The report of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change (Undated, p. 4), keeps up that agrarian terrains can be planted with carbon-dioxide settling trees that can be utilized for fuel creation. This will result to arrive utilize changes that may have different circuitous advantages, for example, change of soil, air and water quality; and increment in untamed life environment. In any case, examine discoveries recommend that the development of corn and soybeans for biofuel creation produces antagonistic natural effects, for example, the filtering of pesticides and nitrogen and phosphorus from composts into water assets, (Manuel, 2007). In addition, biofuels are from two to four times more costly than petroleum derivatives and are not accepted to contend well in the commercial center. For instance, "a fuel – cost correlation demonstrates that while gas could be refined for 15 to 16 pennies for every liter (in the late 1980s), the expense of biofuels went from a normal of around 30 pennies for each liter (for methanol got from biomass) to 63 pennies for each liter (for ethanol got from beets in the United Kingdom)", (Barbier et al. 1991, p. 142; refered to in Johansen, 2002, p. 266). Power Sector Technology As indicated by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change Report (Undated), control plants and coal ignition that supply electric power represent the ozone harming substance outflows on the power part. Mechanical arrangements accessible for this division to address a dangerous atmospheric devation include: 1. Coordinated Gasification and Combined Cycle Process The Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle Process or IGCC, is a power age innovation that enhances the productivity of electric power and warmth age with the utilization of a mix of petroleum derivatives and sustainable power source. It empowers clean gas generation and the decrease in carbon dioxide emanations with the utilization of superior gas turbines, (Abela, et al., 2007). In addition, air toxins, for example, particulate issue, sulfur, nitrogen and mercury are expelled from the gasified coal before burning, (Abela, et al., 2007). Be that as it may, the significant drawback of utilizing this innovation is its surprising expense of task, which is around 20% more than the working expense of a customary coal plant, (Wikipedia, undated). 2. Sustainable power Sources Sustainable power sources, for example, the breeze, sun oriented and water can deliver power without discharging ozone harming substances and are accordingly essential in the enhancement of an unnatural weather change. a. Wind Power Wind control innovation tackles the intensity of the breeze which is a roundabout type of sun oriented power, to supply vitality. Some have propeller compose gadgets, while others have vertical pivot outlines, which have the capacity to acknowledge twist from any course. As indicated by Elliott (2003), wind control is as of now a basic wellspring of vitality; and that in 2002, the aggregate producing limit has achieved 24,000 megawatts, with costs diminishing fundamentally with innovation advancement. Nonetheless, this innovation regularly has expansive space prerequisites, because of the need of the breeze turbines to be gathered together in twist ranches, keeping in mind the end goal to encourage sharing of associations with the power matrix. Additionally, there ought to be a detachment of around 5 to 15 sharp edge distances across between individual breeze turbines, with a specific end goal to "forestall fierce communications in wind cultivate exhibits" , (Elliott, 2003, p. 135). b. Sun based Power Brilliant vitality can be caught and used to produce power which might be utilized to work sun oriented batteries or might be transmitted along ordinary transmission lines. Brilliant vitality is gathered in a photovoltaic cell, which is a bimetallic unit that enables guide change of daylight to power. The main disadvantage of using photovoltaic cells is its surprising expense. In any case, later "improvements in the semiconductor business have fundamentally cut down costs", (Elliott, 2003, p.132). Electric power age has likewise been expert with the utilization of enormous sun powered warmth concentrating mirrors and allegorical troughs and dishes that track the sun over the sky and center its beams in order to raise steam, (Elliott, 2003, p130), and thusly create power. One noteworthy burden of utilizing sunlight based power innovation is that it works just amid the day and requires electrical capacity systems during the evening. Moreover, brilliant warmth is inadequate in chilly districts and in zones with broad overcast periods, bringing about low measure of vitality accumulation. c. Water Power Hydropower is the world's greatest inexhaustible wellspring of vitality. It is considered as a standout amongst the most worthy and cleanest advances whereby a unit of water produces hydropower aggregately by going through the turbines of numerous dams along the drop of a stream", (Gibbons, 1986, p. 86). As indicated by Elliott (2003, p. 151), "there is around 650 GW of introduced limit set up, for the most part in 300 vast undertakings. Be that as it may, lately, there have been social and ecological worries about vast hydros, and some new tasks have met with restriction". Its unfriendly ecological effects incorporate the demolition of vast territories of characteristic vegetation and farming area for water stockpiling; biodiversity misfortune, flooding and relocation of populace, (Elliott, 2003). 3. Geothermal Power Geothermal power isn't viewed as an inexhaustible asset when utilized at rates of extraction more noteworthy than their normal recharging. With reasonable utilize, be that as it may, geothermal power can be viably tackled to give power. Geothermal vitality originates from the warmth of the earth and can be sorted into geopressured, magma, aqueous and hot dry shake, (Wright, 2002, p. 362). As per Hobbs (1995, refered to in Wright, 2002, p. 362), business tasks are generally as aqueous frameworks "where wells are around 2000 meters deep with supply temperatures of 180 to 270°C." Although geothermal frameworks create less t>GET ANSWER