The back of the book [Go, Went, Gone] says it is “a scathing indictment of Western policy toward the European refugee crisis, but also a touching portrait of a man who finds he has more in common with the Africans than he realizes.”
In your essay, show how both halves of that assessment ring true—the indictment, and the touching portrait. Discuss this material as examples of Pratt’s notion of a “contact zone.” Both sides are challenged by the other, both might respond in varying ways, both might be changed by the encounter or made more defensive or fearful. For example, at exactly halfway through the novel, Richard thinks the following: “Learning to stop wanting things is probably one of the most difficult lessons of getting old. But if you don’t learn to do that, it seems to him, your desires will be like a bellyful of stones dragging you down into your grave” (140). On one hand, this sounds like reasonable wisdom from an aging man; on the other hand, it sounds like someone who has given up and is turning the lights out in the house. Would Richard give the same advice at the end of the novel? (consider page 206). For the migrants, the challenge is of a different sort: “For the refugees, preserving their dignity is an arduous task that is demanded of them every day, pursuing them even when they lie in bed) (280-81).
Although costs have increased, the development of new drugs has seen a decline since the 1990s (True cost). The process of pharmaceutical development is long, costly, and uncertain. According to the Food and Drug Administration, the average cost of developing a new drug is $2.6 billion dollars (FDA). Approximately 50% of developed medications reach screening while a low 5% of medications are approved (FDA). With these risks, pharmaceutical companies have fixated on the promotion of their current drugs as opposed to the release of new medications. However, pharmaceutical companies have long justified their pricing by defensively arguing that revenue goes towards the research and development of new medication. In a six year review (2011-2017) of thirteen of the large pharmaceutical companies, 17% of total revenue was spent on research and development with a staggering 60% spent on the marketing of their current products (True). Over the years, pharmaceutical companies have been able to allocate their profits towards their gains. After all, the pharmaceutical industry is a lucrative business that have thrived under the laxity of regulations and have figured out ways to further increase profit margins. As these problems have become more apparent, bills such as California’s drug transparency bill of 2017 have been enacted. This bill mandates these companies to provide 60 day warnings of greater than or equal to 16% price increases (Upenn). Although the idea behind this bill is a step towards better regulations, it has yet to be adapted on a national level. As mentioned previously, the Food and Drug Administration is the sector that awards market exclusivity while the US Patent and Trademark Office is responsible for patent exclusivity. Despite having a specific timeframe for patents, pharmaceutical companies actively seek extensions through many ways. Some of their methodology includes simply applying for and extension and submitting patent applications for non-therapeutic aspects of drugs such as coating and formulation (JAMA). The delay of the patent expiration prevents the release of generic medication. Generic drug manufacturers are direct competitors of brand-name companies; therefore, these larger companies have began to offer f>GET ANSWER