Close Reading of Two Texts
• Close Reading and Concepts in American Literature, 1867-1996
• 4-5 double-spaced pages in 12 pt. Times New Roman or equivalent; 1-inch margins†
Description: This Final you will have the opportunity to build a coherent, focused argument in the shape of a formal essay that brings together two readings from two different weeks of the semester. This assignment will require you to define a thesis and to support that thesis with evidence from the passage/text of your choice. Additionally, you will link your thesis and support to a concept (or lens of analysis).
Process: Select two texts (I am going to use the Open boat and desiree baby) that we’ve read this semester that interest you. Then, choose one passage from each text that you would like to bring together for your close reading (for a total of two passages). Think about the passages together: are they similar thematically? Do they address a similar subject matter? Do they address a similar subject matter, but with different approaches? Begin your paper by making a claim for what the two passages are doing together. You may select a concept or theme we’ve discusses this semester in connection with one or more of our readings, but you also have the option of developing your own concept or theme that connects both readings. Within the first paragraph of your paper, make an argument about the two texts, based on the concept you’ve defined that connects these two passages. Then, continue with the steps of a close reading, as outlined in Week 2 (I have attached an example) . Here is where defining the concept is helpful/essential: you can tie your lexicon, explanations, and argument to the concept. Your concept is the bridge between the two texts, and your paper should explicitly show how you are making the connections between the two.
(1) Choose one passage each from two course texts (for a total of 2 passages):‡
(2) Retype or otherwise indicate passage choices before beginning paper; this does not count toward page length.
(3) Identify the concept that you will use as your analytic lens.
(4) Develop a thesis that you pose early in your paper (ideally, within the first paragraph). Your thesis should use the first-person pronoun “I” to show your reader your unique intervention.
Example: “Based on these two passages, I argue that although a century separates their
work, Sarah Winnemucca and Louise Erdrich both show the cultural resilience of the Native
American tribal community.” [you will obviously come up with something better. This is just a
sample; do not use it in your own paper!]
(5) For the rest of your paper, follow the steps of a close reading, showing your reader how
each point supports your thesis. Those steps are
Noticing the lexicon
Explaining your findings
Connecting your passage to other moments in the text, to support your thesis
(6) Conclude by thinking of the larger implications and significance of your argument. Do not just restate your thesis. Questions to think about when drafting a conclusion: What does this detailed argument about the passages reveal about the world in which the author wrote? What does this concept tell us about literature of the time periods in which these authors are writing?
Be generous. Being generous is the opposite of being stingy. Alkareem is in fact one of Allah’s magnificent names meaning being generous. Alkaram (generosity) is another characteristic of the Muslim business people. They should be generous in giving money and goods to the needy. Islam urges people to give legal alms or obligatory charity (Az-Zakat). Az-Zakat is an ordinance prescribed by Islamic law. Social responsibility is another important principle in management practices. Sadaqat (donations), not obligatory, are very much urged in the Holy Qur’an (Holy Qur’an, LVI:77) and (Holy Qur’an, XLIV:17,26). Be dignified. A business person in Islam should not indulge in investments that are not Halal. Halal is the opposite of Haram. Halal is ethical while haram is unethical. Examples of haram earnings for a Muslim include trading in alcohol, Be trustful (Al Amaneh). Being trustful means giving rights to others. For example, if you borrow some money from someone, you are supposed to return it at the agreed time at no interest. A good loan with no interest is an example of Islamic financial dealings (Alkird Al hasan) (Holy Qur’an, XL32) and (Holy Qur’an, IV:58). Be friendly. Muslims should be friendly and united at all times. No discrimination exists among Muslims, regardless of nationality, gender or color. The only difference between Muslims should be on the basis of piety (Holy Qur’an, XLIX: 10, 13). Be equitable. Equity is the opposite of injustice. A Muslim manager should be equitable. In Islam people should be treated fairly and with equity. Do not be involved in fraud. A Muslim business person should treat others the same way he himself would like to be treated (Holy Qur’an, XVI: 90, IV: 58). Do not bribe. The practice of all kinds of bribes is forbidden in Islam (Holy Qur’an, II: 188). However, there should be differentiation between sadakat (donations), gifts, and bribes. Gifts are encouraged in Islam because they help gain friendship. The prophet encourages the use of gifts saying “Give more gifts so you be better liked” (Hadith). Bribes on the other hand are unethical. Bribes are used to influence decisions. There are two kinds of bribes: the “lubrication” bribe and the “white mail” bribe. The white mail bribe generally involves an elaborate system for concealing the use of large sums of corporate cash. This type of bribe is used to buy influence in high places (Abuznaid, 1990, p. 319). From these key guidelines principles of ethics, we can conclude that Islam is a religion of high-moral standards. Muslim business people are urged in Al Qur’an and Al Sunnah to follow certain principles and guidelines. (Source: Abuznaid, 2009) CONCLUSION As stated above, the main purpose of this term paper is to discuss the meaning of ethics from an Islamic perspective. The research has defined Islamic management ethics as those guidelines and principles that are prescribed by the Holy Qur’an and sunnah (hadith). The paper has give explanation on the major determinants of individual ethical behavior in Islam and pinpointed based on the moral and akhlaq. Besides that, the paper has outlined some of the ethical principles which is the principles of Islamic business ethics. This paper has also discussed the challenges in encouraging Islamic ethical behaviors among information / information technology personnel. It further helps non-Muslim people become more aware of management ethics in an Islamic environment by giving them a better understanding of the subject, thus making it easier for them to carry out all the activities in an Islamic culture. However, it must be stated that there is not one united form of applied Islamic teachings among different Muslim countries. It is widely known that Middle Eastern countries have become more active in the global market place by applied their ethics. Moreover, this paper has outlined major commonalities between Islam and other religions on the subject of ethics from the Islamic perspective. Although this paper has presented the concept of ethics from Islamic perspective, hope all the Muslim are together applied all the ethics that are based on the al-Quran and al-Sunah to be an excellent humans. Therefore, it is the duty of all researchers interested in this issue to develop this knowledge. May Allah gives guidance in this new endeavour.>GET ANSWER