At the start of the 19th century, American republican ideals rested on a firm foundation of individual property rights and the freedom of independent producers (farmers and artisans). But slavery, civil war and the transformations taking place in the workplace—much of it due to rapid industrialization—fundamentally changed our understanding of American republicanism. The rapid transformations and reinterpretations of republicanism were often fought out in the workplace and political arena.
You job is to explain:
Why the early 19th century artisan/farmer republican ideals were increasingly out of step with the realities of the mid-to-late 19th century industrial workplace; and
How the tensions between worker republicanism (or what we have referred to as “labor republicanism”) and employer republicanism were expressed over time and at least temporarily settled by the end of the 19th
edy the problems presented above, commentators have argued that the UN should focus on humanitarian activities as promoting the interests of its most powerful members can be problematic (Schaaf, 2013). Hazen (2007) argues that the UN should only conduct peacekeeping activities, but should use them as a foundation on which national governments and populations can build up peaceful governance over a long period of time. Analysis of many conflict situations indicates that it is important to have national and popular ownership of the process in order for sustainable change to take place (Hazen, 2007). One example of this is Kosovo’s successful self-led bid for independence, which took place on 17 February 2008. On this date, the Assembly of Kosovo, approved a declaration of independence that established its autonomous independent governance following a period spent as a province of Serbia under administration by the UN (Weller, 2012). Although the UN had from 1999 to 2008 been in charge of governing Kosovo, 72 UN member states recognised Kosovo as an independent sovereign state (Vakhtangidze, 2011; Balouziyeh, 2012). Furthermore, in the two decades before Kosovo established itself as an independent nation, international authorities had considerable involvement in conflicts in the region, an illustration of the widely-held belief that international bodies such as the UN should intervene in difficult regional and ethnic conflicts (Daalder and O’Hanlon, 1999). However, after twenty years of conflict it was argued that the creation of an independent Kosovo was vital if peace were to be maintained in the region. This was because the UN, the UK and the European Union (EU) all agreed that the violent and unique circumstances of the breakup of Yugoslavia and the period Kosovo spent under administration by the UN made it a special case for establishing an independent nation on human rights grounds (Vakhtangidze, 2011). Hence, the example of Kosovo’s bid for independence that was supported by the UN shows that the UN is effective as a peacekeeper and enforcer of international security on humanitarian grounds. Thus, Hazen (2007) argues that UN intervention is often necessary but should be limited. Although under Article II Part 7 of its Charter, the UN has traditionally upheld the national interests of all its member states, especially the permanent 5, the publication of the Responsibility to Protect in 2005 has changed how its operates (Clements, 2008). Humanitarian intervention takes place on two levels. First, it must acknowledge that the consequences of any kind of intervention, including humanitarian intervention can be considerable and, second, intervention in the affairs of another nation is a matter of principle, rather than one of personal gain (Paskins, 1993). The Responsibility to Protect was introduced as humanitarian intervention began to be touted as an appropriate response to conflict situations in 1999 by Bill Clinton, the then-President of the United States and Tony Blair, the then-Prime Minster of the UK (Daalder and O’Hanlon, 1999; Jenkins, 2016). In a speech broadcast in Chicago in 1999, Blair argued for humanitarian intervention on the grounds that the UN had a ‘responsibility to protect’ peoples experiencing persecution or being oppressed (Jenkins, 2016: 1). These sentiments inspired by UN intervention in the Kosovo Conflict in 1998-1999 led the UN to intro>GET ANSWER