At the start of the 19th century, American republican ideals rested on a firm foundation of individual property rights and the freedom of independent producers (farmers and artisans). But slavery, civil war and the transformations taking place in the workplace—much of it due to rapid industrialization—fundamentally changed our understanding of American republicanism. The rapid transformations and reinterpretations of republicanism were often fought out in the workplace and political arena.

You job is to explain:

Why the early 19th century artisan/farmer republican ideals were increasingly out of step with the realities of the mid-to-late 19th century industrial workplace; and
How the tensions between worker republicanism (or what we have referred to as “labor republicanism”) and employer republicanism were expressed over time and at least temporarily settled by the end of the 19th

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