1.What were some of the reasons the Romans emerged as a very practical people? In what areas of Roman life do we see evidence of their practical nature? Provide and explain at least one example (from both the Roman Culture Lecture Presentation and the Roman Architecture Lecture Presentation) of Roman contributions to the Humanistic tradition that reveals this practical and/or pragmatic outlook.
2.What made the Colosseum such an important part of Roman life? What was its overall purpose? What are some of its architectural characteristics (both inside and out)?
3. Who is Paul of Tarsus? What is he known for? Why is he such an important figure for the development of early Christianity?
4. What were living conditions like for early Christians in the Roman Empire? How did this influence the development of early Christian art? Provide, describe, and explain at least 2 examples.
Presently the territory of Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was built up by Puritans (see Puritanism) escaping religious abuse in England. Made out of various settlements built up at different circumstances, the province had its start on June 19, 1630, when John Winthrop remained on board the ship Arbella and conveyed a lesson to a gathering of wiped out and exhausted travelers going to start another life in the "wailing wild" of New England. Winthrop reminded his audience members that their expulsion from England did not break their social and political ties, to be sure those ties ought to end up more tightly and all the more nearly take after the will of God. The settlement was to be an arranged network, committed to understanding the will of God and to making a model society for old England to imitate. The leaders of old England be that as it may, did not wish to, take after the Puritan lead. Both James I and Charles I were suspicious of the Puritans, particularly their dismissal of diocesans, which they saw as equivalent to dismissing illustrious expert. James, I had been surfeited with this dismissal of episcopal expert while the ruler of Scotland, having seen the Scottish Presbyterians expel his mom from the position of royalty and place him upon it while still an adolescent. When he prevailing to the position of authority of England, James realized that he needed to hold the Church of England's diocesans and guaranteed to make his Puritan subjects acclimate or "harry them out of the kingdom or more terrible," as he put it. This hostile to Puritanism was proceeded and extended by his successor, Charles I. Charles and his ecclesiastical overseer of Canterbury occupied with a procedure of abuse that prompted the "considerable relocation" of thousands of English Puritans to British North America. This relocation, driven by the Arbella and going with ships, brought about various Puritan provinces in New England, the most noteworthy of which was Massachusetts Bay. The settlement was initially sorted out as a stock organization with voting rights restricted to investors who picked the province's pioneers, yet this changed not long after their landing in America. Winthrop, who held the title of representative, accumulated the settlement's tenants on October 29, 1630, and by a show of hands gave all the freemen of the state the privilege to choose aides or administrators. This activity, which before long incorporated about every single grown-up male in the state, gave Massachusetts Bay a substantially more extensive establishment than England and the vast majority of Europe, regardless of its confinement to chapel participation. The Puritans wanted to assemble an arranged network, under the careful provision of God. This general public was not, in any case, the religious government that many have guaranteed it to be. Actually, serves in the Massachusetts Bay Colony had less formal power than anyplace in Europe and did not constitute a perceived class with exceptional benefits. This nonappearance of acquired benefits was a noteworthy factor in the life of the province. In spite of the fact that the Puritans solidly trusted that there were more noteworthy and lesser individuals, and titles, for example, Goodwife, Mistress, and Master always certified these divisions, the range was significantly less than in England. Sumptuary laws represented the idea of individual dress-constraining the hues, measure of gold, and adornments a man could wear. These laws both avowed social refinements and restricted conspicuous showcases of riches and influence. At the point when joined with the Puritan convention of human sin and of human uniformity before God, they brought about significantly less plain social contrasts in Massachusetts Bay than the nation of origin. The longing to look after congruity, dependability, and social request was incredible. The judges authorized the laws against irreverence and rebuffed the individuals who neglected to go to community gatherings. The idea of frontier settlement likewise served to fortify social dependability and union. The land was assigned to every pilgrim for cultivating, however individuals lived in towns, venturing out to their ranches every morning and returning at night. Towns focused on the meetinghouse, the congregation assembling that worked as the focal point of the network's social, political, and religious life. The cliché free pioneer isolated from the network was not adequate in Massachusetts Bay. Such a pioneer, isolated from the obligations of family, church, network, and government, will undoubtedly pass into reserved and skeptical conduct. The virtuous life could be lived just with others. Clashes over the idea of that life, be that as it may, were with the end goal that the amicability wanted by the state's political first class was never figured it out. These contentions developed right off the bat in the state's life. The first was the alleged Antinomian Controversy. Occasioned by the religious guideline thatAnne Hutchinson gave in her home and including clashes between the developing trader class and the state's political and religious world class, the Antinomian Controversy was normally Puritan in that it was battled about philosophy and the part of social amicability in religious philosophy. Also, the removal of Roger Williams from the province was a reaction to religious contrasts that specialists saw as destabilizing. Williams' conviction that the legislature had no privilege to authorize the initial segment of the decalogue-the initial four of the Ten Commandments managing adore was viewed as a strike upon the social security of the state. To be sure, many seen any disappointment of the state to implement these laws as a challenge to divine demolition. To prohibit disrespect was a demonstration of religious confidence as well as guaranteed social survival. Such clashes, similar to those with other "socially problematic" gatherings, for example, Baptists, Quakers (seeFriends, a Religious society of [Quakers]), and witches (see Salem witchcraft preliminaries) repeated as the Puritans endeavored to assemble a reasonable society in an antagonistic land. They battled forcefully to build up the social organizations that would accommodate the settlement's soundness. Holy places and towns were the first to show up, at that point came a school (Harvard, 1638), printing presses, and schools. Before long Massachusetts Bay was an extending and effective settlement, kept alive by angling, agribusiness, timber reaping, and even the slave exchange. Thriving did not, in any case, facilitate the troubles of making an arranged society satisfying to God. Strains rose inside the New England route among those outside as well as those inside it too. The main concern was the discernment that devotion was declining inside the province. From the brave time of settlement, when the state appeared to have been commanded by awesome men and high religious concern, many saw a decrease by the mid-seventeenth century. Religious intrigue seemed to have wound down and the quantity of unmistakable holy people to have declined. This worry turned out to be prevalent to the point that the messages lectured about it have gotten their own particular name. Jeremiads, as they are known, were coordinated against this apparent declension. Regardless of whether the decrease was as extraordinary as the clergymen guaranteed is begging to be proven wrong, however without a doubt the province encountered the move from a period when individuals moved from religious conviction to a period when individuals just were naturally introduced to the general public. A telling tale, likely fanciful, delineates this change well. A Puritan serve once censured a man he discovered emptying fish on Sunday, helping him to remember the religious idea of the province and its originators. The angler immediately reacted, "My granddad came here from God, I came here for cod." The province confronted different difficulties. Boss among these were the neighborhood Indians and the French who, from their stations in Canada, incidentally harried the province's more removed settlements alongside their Native American partners. These difficulties finished with the possible British success of France's North American states in 1759. The evacuation of this outer danger just exacerbated the interior one, the progressing clashes between the pioneers in America and the homeland. This contention was not to be messed with, and in Massachusetts, it had a religious measurement. The late seventeenth century had seen an obvious triumph of the "Puritan" party in its monarchical shape in England. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 had evacuated the Catholic lord, James II, and with it the risk to the province's free presence under James, who had renounced the state's contract and set up an Anglican a dependable balance at King's Chapel in Boston. In any case, this was not by any means the only religious danger that England displayed to the settlement. On the off chance that some contemporary scholars are to be trusted, the most noteworthy clashes and the genuine beginning of theAmerican Revolution started with the talk that England would send a diocesan to the provinces. The inconvenience of a diocesan was seen by numerous settlers as an inalienable danger to their freedoms. InMassachusetts Bay, where stories of episcopal abuse of Puritans were still recollected, this was the last ambush on all that they had attempted to make. Effectively compelled to enable toleration to different Protestants, they presently confronted the last loss of their religious freedom. The Puritan convention of self-government, the run of law, and human action set the phase for the American Revolution. The transformation in "the hearts and brains," as John Adams-a Puritan scion-composed, had just happened. It was no happenstance that a lot of the progressive administration originated from Massachusetts. The state and its Puritanism had made ready.>GET ANSWER