Ibra bank, located in Muscat has multiple branches. It provides online banking service to its customers. Once the user enters their user name and password, it encrypts the password for safe transaction. The password entered by the customers are stored in the database of the bank for later verification. Whenever the customer makes transaction, OTP will be sent to their registered GSM number via SMS. Once the customer enters the received OTP, further transaction can be carried out by the customer. The bank also allows the users to open a new account digitally.
- The bank ensures the confidentiality of the user password using Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm.
- Implement DES algorithm and analyze any two possible attacks on it using any two modes of operation of a block cipher.
- Suggest an alternate algorithm that can be used by the bank and prove how does it prevent the attacks that are exposed by DES.
- The bank uses SHA 1 cryptographic hash function to create and store the user passwords in its database to ensure the integrity and user authentication.
- Create a password using SHA 1 or MD5 hashing algorithm and demonstrate any two attacks that are possible.
- Suggest a strong hash function that can be used by the bank and analyse how does it prevent the attacks that are exposed by SHA 1 or MD5.
- The bank uses digital signature to ensure the message authentication, message integrity, and nonrepudiation services while the new user applies to create a new account.
- Demonstrate how does authentication can be ensured by digital signature and analyse any one possible attack on it.
- Assume Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol is used by the bank to share the session keys to its customers.
- Demonstrate Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol and analyse any one possible security attack on it.
So as to get 'initiative', this exposition will initially characterize the term. Numerous scholars propose initiative is tricky, misjudged and there are no ensured models (Parker 1994, Crainer 1995). In any case, Mullins (1999) accepts authority is basic to the administration of individuals inside an association with the end goal for them to accomplish their goal(s). This includes a pioneer's conduct, style and qualities. Comprehend initiative styles Mullins (1999) accepts there are numerous measurements to depict initiative, for instance, oppressive, appealling and consultative to give some examples .These styles can be arranged in to 3 primary headings, the absolutist chief, the law based pioneer and the free enterprise pioneer. The despotic administration style is like Belbin's (1993) portrayal of an independent chief. The focal point of intensity is with the pioneer, who acts alone in basic leadership, setting assignments, approaches and controls prizes and disciplines (Mullins 1999). This style of authority might be valuable in a work place circumstance where the group being overseen are conceivably youthful, or recently prepared or even unpracticed, or potentially when objectives must be accomplished inside a time period and there is no adaptability in the objectives. A case of this would be a pioneer, overseeing disciples, could utilize this way to deal with assistance educate and support the Employee, while as yet accomplishing the on location Key Performance Indicators (KPI's) set by the customer in accordance with wellbeing and security. The Democratic administration style is additionally a typical kind of initiative style utilized in the work place. Interestingly, the focal point of intensity is with the gathering. The pioneers imparts choices to colleagues. It might be utilized with a progressively experienced workforce. It requires a more noteworthy contribution from their very own group, this may likewise incorporate or deliver a more prominent sentiment of resolve .Team individuals are allowed the chance to share thoughts and enables them to feel progressively occupied with the entire procedure. In the workplace this is helpful when, for instance, the agreement administrator needs to incorporate on a superior level, with their group. This permits an increasingly successful technique for time the executives with the group as greater obligation is put on the colleagues, decreasing the need to always pursue their group. The last basic style of administration is the Lassiez-faire style. This style of initiative can be characterized in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary as: " A way of thinking or practice described by a generally conscious abstention from heading or obstruction, particularly with singular opportunity of decision and activity " Kurt Lewin is regularly credited with building up the idea of lassiez-faire administration. This style of administration is helpful in a working environment circumstance where the group being overseen are, for instance, exceptionally gifted or may have a broad scope of experience, and are happy with working without close supervision and are maybe increasingly self-propelled or driven. A case of this in the work place condition would be the point at which a group nearby is worked of a choice of move chiefs, the move supervisors are required to run different electrical shutdowns on location and are required to run the assignments from beginning to end without the requirement for the principle contract administrator to continually direct the on-going undertaking or must have a lot of mediation. In some random authority style there are constantly positive and negative results from their utilization. Absolutist administration style portrays that the pioneer or administrator holds most or if not all basic leadership authority. The positives to this can be compelling supervision by utilization of nitty gritty requests or directions or when an association has high-volume needs every day. The negative focuses to this can be a supervisor or pioneer doesn't trust their employee's, or workers' don't feel roused or trusted. From this, the association may experience the ill effects of higher truancy or may endure a higher turnover of staff. Law based administration style portrays that the pioneer or supervisor keeps their representatives progressively educated with respect to whatever may influence their work. This could imply that the pioneer takes on a sort of training job and remembers the staff for data assembling however has the keep going state on basic leadership. The positive to this is it enables the pioneer to give representatives chances to build up a feeling of self occupation fulfillment, and is helpful if there is an assignment that requires bunches of contribution to understand it. The negative side to this kind of authority style is time, there may not be an ideal opportunity to accumulate everybody's information or it might be financially savvy for the pioneer to settle on an official conclusion. Lassiez-faire initiative style is delineated as a "hands-off "style. For this situation the administrator takes a' secondary lounge' way to deal with their group. A positive factor to this methodology is that the Employees are bound to be profoundly gifted or experienced and have a feeling of self-pride in their work. It likewise takes into consideration more opportunity and power to the representatives. The negative focuses related with this kind of authority style is that it might make workers feel avoided because of the inaccessibility of a supervisor, this may cause a drop in moral in people or as a joint group. Comprehend initiative characteristics and survey possess authority characteristics and potential One method for surveying conduct related with administration is to utilize a model of the board/initiative. All pioneers have a scope of ranges of abilities, and it is helpful to utilize a model when assessing your own style to have a structure for evaluation. The model I have picked is "The initiative lattice "Blake and Mouton (1985). (See supplement 1) This model enables a director to finish a self-appraisal survey, to assess his/her very own initiative conduct, and this can be contrasted with input from possess staff. On finishing of the survey, my score of duel 6 in assignment and individuals demonstrated a "group pioneer". (See supplement 2) This kind of individual shows others how its done, cultivating a group situation with the goal that all staff can meet their latent capacity. This differentiations to some criticism got from staff individuals who expressed that now and again, I center around accomplishing errands by taking control, instead of including colleagues. (See addendum 3) I right now run a group in the Data Center condition, where this is exceptionally basic assignment orientated. On a move direction I need to actually oversee 3 other staff individuals, my every day errands comprise of day by day briefings, and the executives of any temporary workers that might be nearby alongside any basic gear upkeep. There is an extraordinary accentuation put on how assignments are overseen as there is no place for blunder in this condition, because of the high wellbeing and dangers and monetary expenses to the customer. My group referenced that they felt my most prominent ascribe was my capacity to manage basic and distressing circumstances, unhesitatingly and unequivocally and that I generally keep a level head, and this thus gives them consolation and certainty. They felt anyway that on occasion, I become so engaged with undertakings, that there is once in a while almost no remittance's for joint effort or outside participation. As indicated by Blake and Mouton's "authority Grid" this spots me more towards a high errand, low relationship, Autocratic style of administration as opposed to Team pioneer. When contrasting the 2 styles of administration I would then be able to take a gander at tending to an adjustment in the manner I approach my initiative. Right off the bat it is valuable to evaluate the qualities and shortcomings of individual colleagues, empowering me to utilize my own designation abilities all the more dependably. This will include me investing quality energy with my group, reinforce group bonds, and drawing out thoughts. This adjustment in conduct towards my staff moves me more towards Team pioneer, in the administration network. This change will enable staff to feel increasingly included yet additionally bolstered by their group head. It likewise enables me to hold a degree of control when managing upsetting circumstances, as I would have recognized and picked the most proper colleague to work with in some random circumstance. In end it is fundamental that any pioneer comprehends that there are various administration styles that can be investigated and used in a workplace. These authority styles may shift contingent upon the undertaking close by, the characters inside the group and the results required by the customer. It is significant that any pioneer can adjust and change styles to their workforce to guarantee that objectives can be accomplished, individuals feel included, the pioneer feels over all control and results are fruitful.>GET ANSWER