1. A recent Australian government-commissioned health report shows that tooth decay among children and low income earners has risen by 10% since 2000. Should the government subsidise dental care for children and low income earners? Critically discuss. Use appropriate economic tools, including diagrams, studied in this unit to illustrate your arguments. 2. In 2010, the Australian government imposed a tax on Alcopops to reduce teenage binge drinking and alcohol-related harms and hospitalization, and also to raise tax revenue. However, by the end of the financial year no reductions in teenage binge drinking and alcohol-related harm were recorded and, moreover, the revenue raised from the tax was 6% less than predicted. a. As an economist, are you surprised about the outcome of the government’s tax policy? Critically discuss. Use the demand and supply model and other appropriate microeconomic tools you have learned in this unit to illustrate your argument. b. Who bore a greater burden of the tax, the buyers or sellers of Alcopops? Was the outcome of the tax efficient? c. What other policy could the government implement to reduce teenage binge drinking and alcohol-related harm and hospitalization? Explain.
Communalism is an unavoidable marvel in people in general existence of India and shared uproars are the ugliest articulation (Gopal Krishna, Communal Violence in India1985). Shared uproars have turned into a fundamental piece of communalism in India. An occasion can be delegated a mutual mob on two grounds. Right off the bat, if there is viciousness. Also, if at least two mutually recognized gatherings go up against each other or the individuals from the other gathering, sooner or later amid the brutality (Varshney, 2002). The explanation for such shared mobs can be shallow and paltry; however profound inside there are political purposes for such occasions (Varshney, 2002). India isn't new to mutual mobs; the primary recorded mobs were in the year 1714, 1715, 1716 and 1750 in Ahmedabad (Rajeshwari, 2004). Bipin Chandra in his book "Communalism in Modern India" composes that the greatest collective uproars in India occurred amid 1923-26. Common mobs in India are not unconstrained and are once in a while because of any religious enmity. They as a rule emerge because of clashing political interests, which are regularly connected to monetary interests (Rajeshwari, 2004). Amid the 1960s till the late 1980s, the neighborhood political and financial elements assumed a critical part in inciting the mobs in significant parts of India (Engineer, 2002). Nonetheless, from that point forward the rise of Hindtuva governmental issues, it has been the significant reason for mutual mobs (Engineer, 2002). The part of news media in reportage of common uproars in India is a noteworthy zone of concern. Everything is accounted for in the media, so are mutual uproars. The part of the news media has developed as of late, maybe as a result of the centrality of the news media in shared savagery and clashes (Wolfsfeld, 2007). Indeed, even the most easygoing of onlookers won't prevent the expanding centrality from securing news media under such emergency circumstances. The impact of the news media in peace forms is more inconspicuous, to a limited extent since what isn't accounted for in the media is in some ways more critical than what is accounted for. This paper would take a gander at the way Indian media secured and revealed the two most horrendous episodes of shared savagery in India - the 1984 Sikh mobs in New Delhi and the 2002 Gujarat (Godhra) riots. On the two events the media drew reactions. The paper would talk about if the media has been objective in covering the two uproars and furthermore in the matter of what ought to be media's part in scope of such future shared mobs in India, assuming any. 2.The Changing Face of News Media The worldwide media circle is changing with every agonizing moment. New correspondences advances, for example, camera empowered cell phones and smart phones giving columnists a chance to accumulate and disperse data without hardly lifting a finger. This digitization of the news business has prompted pressure of time and space and in this manner empowered us to see news and pictures of contentions as and when they happen. The pictures communicated in our family rooms are not just advising the worldwide group of onlookers of the horrendous happenings however may likewise prompt further brutality in a current vicious circumstance. Thus, the media's revealing of a contention circumstance has progressed toward becoming as key to the unfurling of the contention itself. With the development in innovation the oppression of separation may have decreased however different shrouded substances factors still influence the detailing of contentions. This is demonstrated by an investigation done by Virgil Hawkings, who clarifies that the contention in Africa which has been in the post-Cold war world in charge of almost 90% of the world's war passings endured a total media power outage. So also, the scope of the enormous war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which brought about more than one million passings in the year 2000, was relatively inconsequential (Hawkins, 2008). Since the media has a capable capacity to achieve expansive number of individuals. It lights the conclusion building procedure and effects the political choices and gathering of people responses in the general public. This in the end shapes the course of predominant emergencies and clashes (Ballantine, 2003). 3.The Media, Religion and Politics With the planes hitting the Twin Towers on 11 September, 2001 the connection amongst media and religion changed for eternity. Karim (2003) proposed that religion would turn into an essential subject for the media and the way media covers occasions would be impacted by the religious suggestions. It is doubtful if the world and its religions have changed or not, but rather the media scope of the same most likely has. Inside India, religion largy affects the individual existences of a huge number of individuals. The nation rehearses relatively every other religion known to the world and this is a standout amongst the most vital features of the nation, so is governmental issues. The lawmakers play on the religious issues from time to time, and media is utilized as the stage. The lawmakers speak with the normal mass through the broad communications. The manner by which we know and find about our government officials is through the media. The media fills in as the fundamental channel of correspondence between the lawmakers and people in general. Religion is one of the subjects in India which the government officials brilliantly use further bolstering their good fortune. Scholarly writing has secured the portrayal of contention in religion and also media and religion yet very little has been inquired about on media, religion and strife circumstances in setting with each other, particularly inside a domain like India. It is hard to comprehend the connection between religion, its development, introduction and struggle circumstances shrouded in the media, without some reference to the more extensive political setting inside which it happens, on the grounds that in a country like India, religion is surely determined by political thought processes. Keeping in mind the end goal to comprehend the part media plays and should play amid collective conflicts in India, let us dissect the two most exceedingly bad mutual mobs India has ever observed - the 1984 Sikh mobs and the 2002 Gujarat riots. 4.The 1984 Sikh Riots in New Delhi 4.1 The Events On 31st of October 1984, the Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi was killed by two of her Sikh guardians. What took after was a total pandemonium and it prompted a deadly hostile to Sikh uproars in India. Sikh homes were deliberately singled out in the capital and mercilessly decimated (Tatla, 2006). The Sikhs were dogged, tires were put around their neck, and oil splashed on their appearances and bodies set burning to fierce passing (Mohanka, 2005). In excess of 3,000 Sikhs were slaughtered in New Delhi itself. Two hundred Gurudwaras, where Sikhs revere, were burned to the ground and numerous Sikh possessed shops were plundered. 1 The circumstance intensified when the recently chose Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, the child of Indira Gandhi was cited, "When a major tree falls, the ground underneath is certain to roll". This gave a sense as though Rajiv Gandhi was giving a lift to the executioners who were killing many Sikhs in the roads of New Delhi (Mohanka, 2005). Mrs. Gandhi's assassinators were avenging Operation Bluestar. In the June of 1984, Mrs. Gandhi, needed to flush out couple of psychological militants, drove by Jamail Singh Bhindranwale, who were stowing away in the areas of the Golden Temple, the holiest hallowed place for Sikhs in India. On the third of June, 1984 a 36 hour time limitation was forced in the Sikh commanded province of Punjab. All techniques for correspondence and travel were suspended. Power supplies were intruded on, an aggregate pass out was made and Punjab was cut off from India and rest of the world (Brar, 1992). The evening of fifth of June, the Indian Army under the order of Major Gen. Kuldeep Singh Brar raged into the Golden Temple. By the morning of the seventh of June the Indian Army had full control of the sanctuary. The aggressor pioneers were killed in the two day fight however alongside it an expansive number of explorers, regular people and kids were likewise killed (Ahmed, 1996). The Sikh people group were disturbed. Their holiest holy place was transformed into a bleeding war zone and honest lives were lost. Saran Singh, a resigned administrator and a popular individual from the Sikh people group in India cites "It was heresy to send troops inside, start shooting and in the process murder blameless enthusiasts accumulated to watch the affliction'' (Mohanka, 2005). From June to September 1984 most individuals from the Sikh people group breast fed a putrefying twisted just to proclaim in Indira Gandhi's death. 4.2 The Indian Media's Coverage of Operation Bluestar and the Sikh Riots Media by its temperament assumes a critical part for any socio-political circumstance independent of the limit it holds (Mohanka, 2005). The media's part in the mobs of 1984 is an intriguing case. Researchers trust that media can assume a part in focussing on a reason much before it takes a terrible turn. On account of Punjab in 1984, the neighborhood media was not steady of the Sikh causes. Additionally, since of start of the issues in Punjab, the administration had a strict control on the media and forced a substantial oversight. Since freedom until the attack of digital TV in India, the electronic media has filled in as the mouthpiece of the administration (Das, 2009). Comparable was the part of the electronic media in Punjab amid the mobs. The Government had such tight control over the media that the remote reporters attempting to catch the awful occasions were not permitted in the neighborhood arrive. The Indian Government went about as a strict unmistakable guardian and made it difficult to support writer visas for remote reporters. The occasions of the 1984 mobs along these lines experienced one-sided media scope as well as particular scope which anticipated uneven chose viewpoint (Das, 2009). The 'media power outage' amid the Operation Bluestar is a prime case of the same. The day preceding the genuine attack by the Indian Army, the Government requested all press out of the state and limited press scope in Punjab. The press was permitted just seven days after the fact on unique sorted out guid>GET ANSWER