When economists talk of labor flows, we are really talking about immigration (and emigration). What are the benefits of immigration to a nation? What are the costs of immigration to a nation? Why is it that economists are generally so positive about immigration?
Industrialised Building System does not have a commonly-approved definition. There are a few definitions by authors who studied into this area previously were found through literature emphasizing on prefabrication, off-site production and mass production of building components (Rahman & Omar, 2006) (Warszawski, 1999) (Trikha,1999). This method will enable cost saving and quality improvement through the reduction of labour intensity and construction standardisation. Apart from this, it offers minimal wastage, less site materials, cleaner and neater environment, controlled quality, and lower total construction costs. In other countries, IBS is known as off-site construction, offsite manufacturing and pre-fabrication. The used components are pre-fabricated. Successful IBS implementations in the world are Sekisui Home (Japan), Living Solution (United Kingdom), Open House (Sweden) and Wenswonen (Netherlands) (Oostra & Joonson, 2007). In Malaysia, Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) has classified the IBS system into 5 categories as follows (IBS Roadmap, 2003): Precast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box Systems Steel Formwork Systems Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems Steel Framing Systems Blockwork Systems IBS has been introduced in Malaysia since early 1960s by the use of pre-cast concrete beam-column element and panelised system (Thanoon, 2003). The projects in Jalan Pekeliling, Kuala Lumpur and Rifle Range, Penang used Danish System and French Estoit System respectively. However, due to the leaking issue and high cost in producing panel components the technologies did not take off as planned. IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 was developed and published to steer the direction of IBS implementation and promotion activities and guide the practitioners and policy makers on IBS related issues (IBS Roadmap, 2003). The importance of IBS was highlighted under the Strategic Thrust 5 of the Construction Industry Master Plan 2006-2015 (CIMP 2006-2015) which has been published as means to chart the future direction of the Malaysian construction industry in 2006 (CIMP, 2006).>GET ANSWER