1.Identify one issue presented in each chapter (12 and 14) that you continue to be unsure about. Refer to the latest issues of several professional journals such as Young Children and the Reading Teacher (other peer reviewed journals may be explored) to learn more about the identified issue. Indicate the topic of your research; summarize one article that helped you gain a better understanding; provide a reflection expressing your new understanding. 500 words
2.Summarize and reflect on Additional Readings #7 and 8 (200 words for each)
- (make up a question that ties to reading)Select one (1) question posited by each member of the pair.
Each pair member will answer the question. The response should discuss the ideas in depth, critically examine and question the ideas, and make connections to the readings as well as any other relevant sources. The response should also represent different perspectives, justified by the either the literature, standards, or students’ professional experiences.
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption. The prevalence of NAFLD is 34.2% in obese children & adolescents and the reported prevalence is highest in Asia (19). Most children are asymptomatic, while some may complain of right upper quadrant pain or abdominal discomfort. NAFLD aggravates hepatic insulin resistance, thereby increasing the risk of developing T2DM. The liver SAFETY (Screening ALT for Elevation in Today’s Youth) study was conducted to develop ALT thresholds and the cut-off of ALT >25 for boys and >22 for girls were suggested for screening NAFLD in children (20). 6. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Increased adiposity, especially abdominal, is associated with hyperandrogenemia and increased metabolic risk. The diagnosis of PCOS in an adolescent girl should be made based on the presence of clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism (after exclusion of other pathologies) in the presence of persistent oligomenorrhea (21). Polycystic ovary morphology on ultrasound is not reliable to make a diagnosis in adolescents because multi-follicular ovaries are a feature of normal puberty that subsides with onset of regular menstrual cycles (22). 7. Psychiatric: Results from several studies suggest a higher rate of depression among obese children than among children of normal weight. In addition to depression, anxiety and low-self esteem have also been found to relate to obesity in children and adolescents. A study by Grilo et al. (23) demonstrated that “the greater the frequency of being teased about weight and shape while growing up, the more negative one’s appearance is regarded, and the greater the degree of body dissatisfaction in adulthood”. 8. Miscellaneous: Orthopedic problems, such as slipped capital epiphyses and Blount’s disease, occur in obese children. Approximately 50% to 70% of children with slipped capital epiphyses are obese. Obese children are also at a higher risk for developing gall stones, pseudotumor cerebri and obstructive sleep apnea. EVALUATION OF THE OBESE CHILD: Obese children often present to the Pediatrician/pediatric Endocrinologist with a concern about a hormonal cause of obesity or secondary to consequences of obesity eg. Concern about gynecomastia or embedded penis in males(pic1), irregular periods, acne or hirsutism in females and acanthosis nigricans(pic2) in both sexes.>GET ANSWER