Contribution of Mindfulness and Emotional Intelligence to Burnout Among Counseling Interns Daniel Testa and Varunee Faii Sangganjanavanich The authors examined the contribution of mindfulness and emotional intelligence to burnout among counseling interns (N = 380). Results indicated that higher scores on mindfulness and emotional intelligence were related to lower burnout scores. Counselor educators and supervisors should be proactive in helping students to cultivate wellness practices during internships. Keywords: burnout, mindfulness, emotional intelligence, counseling interns, counselor education Burnout is an occupational hazard affecting one’s personal and professional well-being, leading to feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). Burnout can result in physical and mental health problems, including fatigue and exhaustion, depression, and anxiety (Killian, 2008). Burnout can also affect one’s attitude about oneself and others. For example, counselors experiencing burnout may develop feelings of cynicism or pessimism toward clients and the profession or decreased self-efficacy (Gündüz, 2012). Burnout has been related to lower job satisfaction (Blankertz & Robinson, 1997), turnover within agencies (Alexander, Lichtenstein, Oh, & Ullman, 1998), lower quality of care to clients (Salyers et al., 2014), and intention to leave the helping professions. Specifically, counselor impairment has been acknowledged as a problem for the profession (Young & Lambie, 2007). The need for more proactive approaches to address counselor impairment, such as monitoring burnout and promoting wellness among counselors-in-training, has also been acknowledged (Roach & Young, 2007). The American Counseling Association (ACA; 2014) has recommended that counselors attend to their personal and professional well-being as a way to prevent impairment and burnout. In addition, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP; 2015) requires counselor education programs to provide students with an understanding of self-care strategies for their well-being. Counselor well-being can be influenced by various factors such as the ability to assess, monitor, and regulate emotions. The latter factor, the ability to assess and Daniel Testa and Varunee Faii Sangganjanavanich, School of Counseling, The University of Akron. Daniel Testa is now at a private practice in Medina, Ohio. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Daniel Testa, Avenues of Counseling and Mediation

While the helping profession is rewarding. It can become overwhelming. It is imperative counselors always
care for themselves while caring for others. Review the attached article and respond to the following

1). Discuss the results of the study

2). Discuss the manner in which you will ensure you do not become overwhelmed in the profession.




Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.