Since we have two topics this class, you can choose to do your lecture exercise on either heritage conservation or the North.
Option A: Heritage Conservation
Based on Prof.lecture, the assigned readings, and the video “Towers of Power,” this lecture exercise focuses on Canada’s twentieth-century residential heritage. Feel free to bring in your own experiences if applicable.
- What are the similarities and differences of low-rise and high-rise suburbs in terms of their character?
- Do these places have historical, social and/or environmental heritage significance? If we wish to conserve these places, what issues must we address?
Option B: The North
What are the key issues in the film “Martha of the North” for understanding the meaning of North for Canada? What does the film say about Canada’s relationship with Indigenous peoples?
Recently, Prolactin (PRL) is thought to play a tumorigenic role in different cancer types including ovarian cancer and it signaling pathway was approached as a therapy target in breast cancer (1). The PRL gene encoding is positioned on chromosome 6. PRL is a protein hormone which made of 197–199 amino acids and contain six cysteines forming three intramolecular disulfide bonds (Cys 4–11, 58–174, and 191–199 in PR) (19). PRL is a versatile and effective molecule that has more than 300 functions in the human body (2). Prolactin can affect Water and electrolyte balance, growth and development, endocrinology and metabolism, brain and behavior, reproduction, immunoregulation and protection and actions associated with pathological disease states (19). Its structure is similar to growth hormone and plays a key role in arbitrating communication between the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Although prolactin is secreted mainly by lactotrophic cells in the anterior pituitary gland, it is known to be produced by other cell types (1). Its gene expression could be found in decidua, myometrium, lacrimal gland, thymus, spleen, circulating lymphocytes, and lymphoid cells of bone marrow, mammary epithelial cells and tumors, skin fibroblasts, and sweat glands and as a consequence it could exist in different body fluids such as sweat, serum, milk, tears and cerebrospinal fluid. The PRL that is produced by several cell types can perform in a more direct manner, i.e., as a growth factor, neurotransmitter, or immunomodulator, in an autocrine or paracrine style. Thus, locally produced PRL can act on adjacent cells (paracrine) or on the PRL-secreting cell itself (autocrine). Using paracrine or autocrine pathways, it is likely to activate many of the actions associated with PRL without ever affecting the serum concentration of the hormone (19). Evidence had shown that PRL, is a hormone/cytokine, that plays a role in different cancer types via local production or accumulation (2). It is one of four analytes used as biomarkers found in blood serum to discriminate between people with ovarian cancer and disease free (4). Studies showed that the overall survival of ovarian cancer patients from transcriptome analysis was lower when plethora PRL and prolactin receptors (PRLR) were expressed (9). Moreover, a study about the interaction between PRL and BRCA1 in ovarian cancer concluded that PRL inhibits a major tumor-suppressive function of BRCA1 by interfering with BRCA1’s upregulation of expression of p21, the cell cycle inhibitor (10). Within the last 20 years studies revealed that prolactin has a leading function in ovarian cancer progression, however not much data exists on this role in this particular cancer type (1). PRL and prolactin receptor PRLR have a great role as growth factors in progression and growth of tumors and cancerous cells (6). Prolactin is known to affect different signalling pathwa>GET ANSWER