CASE STUDY (FETAL ABNORMALITY below)
Jessica is a 30-year-old immigrant from Mexico City. She and her husband Marco have been in the U.S. for the last three years and have finally earned enough money to move out of their Aunt Maria’s home and into an apartment of their own. They are both hard workers. Jessica works 50 hours a week at a local restaurant and Marco has been contracting side jobs in construction. Six months before their move to an apartment, Jessica finds out she is pregnant.
Four months later, Jessica and Marco arrive at the county hospital, a large, public, nonteaching hospital. A preliminary ultrasound indicates a possible abnormality with the fetus. Further scans are conducted and it is determined that the fetus has a rare condition in which it has not developed any arms, and will not likely develop them. There is also a 25% chance that the fetus may have Down syndrome.
Dr. Wilson, the primary attending physician, is seeing Jessica for the first time, since she and Marco did not receive earlier prenatal care over concerns about finances. Marco insists that Dr. Wilson refrain from telling Jessica the scan results, assuring him that he will tell his wife himself when she is emotionally ready for the news. While Marco and Dr. Wilson are talking in another room, Aunt Maria walks into the room with a distressed look on her face. She can tell that something is wrong and inquires of Dr. Wilson. After hearing of the diagnosis, she walks out of the room wailing loudly and praying aloud.
Marco and Dr. Wilson continue their discussion, and Dr. Wilson insists that he has an obligation to Jessica as his patient and that she has a right to know the diagnosis of the fetus. He furthermore is intent on discussing all relevant factors and options regarding the next step, including abortion. Marco insists on taking some time to think of how to break the news to Jessica, but Dr. Wilson, frustrated with the direction of the conversation, informs the husband that such a choice is not his to make. Dr. Wilson proceeds back across the hall, where he walks in on Aunt Maria awkwardly praying with Jessica and phoning the priest. At that point, Dr. Wilson gently but briefly informs Jessica of the diagnosis, and lays out the option for abortion as a responsible medical alternative, given the quality of life such a child would have. Jessica looks at him and struggles to hold back her tears.
Jessica is torn between her hopes of a better socioeconomic position and increased independence, along with her conviction that all life is sacred. Marco will support Jessica in whatever decision she makes, but is finding it difficult not to view the pregnancy and the prospects of a disabled child as a burden and a barrier to their economic security and plans. Dr. Wilson lays out all of the options but clearly makes his view known that abortion is “scientifically” and medically a wise choice in this situation. Aunt Maria pleads with Jessica to follow through with the pregnancy and allow what “God intends” to take place, and urges Jessica to think of her responsibility as a mother.
Write a 3 pages word analysis of “Case Study: Fetal Abnormality.” Be sure to address the following questions:
1. Which theory or theories are being used by Jessica, Marco, Maria, and Dr. Wilson to determine the moral status of the fetus? Explain.
2. How does the theory determine or influence each of their recommendation for action?
3. What theory do you agree with? How would that theory determine or influence the recommendation for action?
Speculations of Crime Causation Wrongdoing is unavoidable and will never be killed. Humanist, for example, Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson guarantee that speculations, for example, social bond hypothesis and restraint hypothesis can enable society to comprehend the causation of violations. In this paper, I will inspect the poise hypothesis and the social bond hypothesis and how these two speculations clarify wrongdoing causation. I will likewise portray the fundamental components of every hypothesis, thoroughly analyze the likenesses and contrasts between these two hypothetical points of view and depict any upgrades that are expected to improve every hypothesis. Social Bond Theory As per Hirschi, everybody can possibly perpetrate violations yet it is the social securities and ties that they share with companions, family and other societal individuals that shield them from carrying out wrongdoings. The social control hypothesis keeps up that misconduct happens in light of feeble social bonds and the more grounded the social obligations of a person to the customary society, the more improbable an individual will take part in exercises that are against societal standards. Hirschi states that the social bonds that an individual offers with society are partitioned into four primary components: connection, duty, inclusion, and conviction (Siegel, 2014). Connection is the passionate bond that kids share with their folks, companions, educators and different individuals in the public eye. This kind of holding is shown in school, church, home and other social establishments. Positive connection to guardians is basic for a kid's social development; it is at this phase youngsters get their qualities and characteristics which they later show later on. Kids hunger for acknowledgment and need to be seen as ideal by indiviudals who play out a profitable part in their lives. Kids who never got any type of positive connection from their folks have a tendency to end up insubordinate later on. Then again, youngsters who got positive connection, cherish and supporting tend to show the same in their character. Parent– tyke connection incorporates the measure of parental supervision on youngsters, nature of parent– kid correspondence and time spent together, and parent's learning of kids' companions (Chui and Chan, 2012). At the point when guardians contribute quality time with their kids they will be appropriately administered; this will give guardians a more profound understanding into the exercises that their youngsters are engaged with and the companions they connect with. Likewise, individuals must be focused on whatever wander they set off to achieve. They may be focused on somebody, an instruction or their vocation. At the point when individuals are carried out they are less inclined to be engaged with violations since they will secure the ventures they have persistently accomplished. Then again when individuals are not perpetrated to anything they go out on a limb and take part in criminal movement, since they don't have much to lose. For instance, duty can be viewed as an adolescent who is performing great in secondary school keeping in mind the end goal to be acknowledged at an authorize school with objectives of getting a vocation. At the point when individuals are associated with additional curricular exercises there is less time and push to perform or take part in illicit exercises. Then again, people who are not associated with any type of customary social exercises, for example, games or religion more often than not wind up taking part in criminal conduct. This can be found in single-parent home where the mother is maintaining two sources of income, getting back home late and youngsters are left without supervision abandoning them at home to administer to themselves. They ought to be left under the watchful eye of an after-school program where some kind of supervision is normal. This leaves the youngsters sit without moving with more opportunity to take part in criminal movement. In any case, Hirschi states that a reprobate demonstration can take minutes to confer, and hence, association in customary exercises alone is deficient to prevent wrongdoing (as expressed in Chui and Chan, 2012). Convictions are qualities and good standards that are shared by a particular gathering of individuals. People who share esteems and convictions comply with the law and regard different people. Then again individuals who were raised with no qualities or convictions will be more similar to perform unlawful acts and agitator illegal. People who share religious convictions might be liable to more prominent controls that counter enticements for wrongdoing. Exemplary social control speculations recommend that unfortunate results of wrongdoing, including disgrace, social dissatisfaction, or loss of social bonds, deflect most people subject to those outcomes from offense (Brauer et al., 2013). The Self-Control Theory The poise hypothesis expresses that low levels of discretion prompts an expanded danger of criminal and reprobate inclusion and in addition a large number of other hazardous practices. This hypothesis guarantees that poise is totally dictated by child rearing (Hollander-Blumoff, 2012). A youngster's childhood decides if they will show high or low discretion. In the event that a tyke wrong doing is remedied then this youngster will have a moderately abnormal state of discretion. Then again, if a kid's wrong-doing isn't chided or adjusted, this kid will have bring down levels of poise. Gottfredson and Hirschi characterized low restraint utilizing unmistakable attributes: moment delight, physical as opposed to mental, dangerous conduct, heartless to others (Connor et al., 2009). Low discretion people bomb in circumstances that require supervision, limitations on how they behave or circumstances that require teach. As indicated by Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990), the individuals who need poise are not just more inclined to participate in dangerous practices, however they have a tendency to do as such resolutely and tirelessly, with dismiss for the outcomes these demonstrations may bring. These sort of individuals love to go out on a limb, for example, going on wrongdoing binge, they additionally take part in other unsafe conduct, for example, smoking and drinking liquor. Low discretion people have a tendency to be life course tireless criminal; the culpable is nonstop and stable and reaches out into adulthood. This low poise or impulsivity is caused by debilitated social bonds, for example, connection and convictions. At the point when guardians give poor supervision and can't furnish their kids with the consideration and the course required they will grow low restraint. Moreover the qualities, standards and convictions that are imparted into youngsters at a youthful age are fundamental in their up-bringing. In the event that guardians don't have any convictions or qualities then the kids won't copy the same, this will at that point prompt an existence of unconformity towards specialist. Low poise people require moment satisfaction; they don't have any duties, for example, a profession or instruction. They would rather carry out violations to pick up the quick joys of wrongdoing, for example, cash or getting inebriated. Having a vocation and profession would mean putting time and cash into acquiring an instruction. This is viewed as a long haul objective that expects them to be subjective and they don't have that trademark. These people don't take a gander at the dangers engaged with perpetrating wrongdoings or the general population they hurt because of it; their exclusive mindfulness is identified with their necessities and the moment compensate accomplished. Investigate The social bond hypothesis expresses that debilitate bonds, for example, connection will lead a person to carry out wrongdoing. In a few examples, youngsters have solid bonds with their companions yet this sort of connection can be perilous. They frequently stress over being acknowledged by their associates and participate in reprobate acts to pick up endorsement. In particular, a frail parent– kid connection amid puberty, especially in mid-immaturity, is probably going to bring about an expansion level of companion affiliation (Chui and Chan, 2012). This is likewise valid for the restraint hypothesis which expresses that levels of discretion are anticipated in light of the kind of child rearing a tyke experienced. Youngsters whose guardians furnish them with frail parental supervision will have moderately low-levels of poise; in this manner making them more prone to participate in criminal exercises. The restraint hypothesis is like the social bond hypothesis since duty is a fundamental component in the two speculations. People with low restraint require moment delight and duty does not oblige the quick want of "at this very moment". With absence of responsibility as indicated by the two hypotheses an individual will more inclined to take part in degenerate conduct. Both the poise hypothesis and the social bond hypothesis identifies with convictions as a motivation behind why individuals don't carry out wrongdoing. As indicated by Brauer et al. (2013), exceedingly religious people might be subjected to more prominent controls that counter allurements for wrongdoing. Having a conviction and an esteem framework gives solid motivating forces to restraint, along these lines better having the capacity to oppose compulsions to act indiscreetly. The social bond hypothesis falls under Hirschi's social control hypothesis. As indicated by social control scholars all individuals can possibly abuse the law and that advanced society presents numerous open doors for illicit movement (Siegel, 2014). On the off chance that social bonds are feeble individuals will fall prey to these criminal open doors exhibited to them and if their social bonds are solid, they will oppose wrongdoing. Conversely, in view of the discretion hypothesis, criminal open doors are consistent and accessible to the vast majority; along these lines opportunity does not assume any part in and person's decision to perpetrate a wrongdoing. Rather, low levels of restraint caused by absence of parental supervision causes standoffish conduct.>GET ANSWER