Discuss under the following headings:
– Introduction & epidemiology
– Pathogenesis(aetiology, risk factors. Tec.)
– Pathology – macroscopic and microscopic features where appropriate
– Clinical presentation and complications
– Comment & conclusion relevant to Chinese Medicine practice
– Reference – at least 5(2 of which have to be from journals or published articles)
Record your case scenario number on the marking criteria sheet
Case scenario 1
A 23 year old woman sees her physician because she has noticed a lump in her right breast. Her physician palpates a 2 cm, firm and circumscribed lesion in the upper lobe of her right breast.
Biopsy confirmed a malignant lesion
Case diagnosis: Breast carcinoma
Case scenario 2
A 25-year-old lady visits her GP with complaints of colicky abdominal pain and passing blood in the stools for the past 3 months. Colonoscopy revealed ulcers in the colon and areas of haemorrhage.
Case diagnosis: Ulcerative colitis
Case scenario 3
A 52 year old gentleman was seen at the clinic complaining of constipation and abdominal bloating sensation for 5 days. He also claims that his bowel movements have become irregular; it used to be once a day and then it became once in 2 days and sometimes he had to strain and there was a bit of bleeding. He underwent a left hemicolectomy. 2 weeks later, he was discharged and referred to the oncologist.
Case diagnosis: Carcinoma of colon
Case scenario 4
An 80 year old farmer complains of pain and swelling in his right knee for the past 5 years. He complains of stiffness in the joint when he wakes up in the morning and after moderate exercise. He says the pain is relieved by rest. His left knee appears enlarged and deformed. He has no associated systemic complaints.
Case diagnosis: Osteoarthritis.
Select a particular aspect(s) of broad communications in one of the accompanying four nations – Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea – , and analyze it/them with another nation of your decision. Examine the likenesses as well as contrasts between the two nations. Particular aspect(s) can be: media framework, media history, media control/direction, media content, media strategy, new media and so forth. Presentation The media assumes a vital part in illuminating the populace about the present exercises inside and outside the nation. The media likewise brings up the shades of malice of the present government. This is the motivation behind why most government tries to limit all types of media, for example, print and press. So as to completely value the importance of the part of the media in a country, a cast investigation of Egypt and Hong Kong have been chosen for examination. Two parts of the media have been chosen, the media control/direction and the media history of these two countries. These two nations have been chosen since they both have comparable and diverse angles in connection to their media. These two countries have likewise experienced exceptional changes in the previous decade and subsequently shaping a major reason for investigation on the past and current difficulties influencing the media. Likenesses amongst Egypt and Hong Kong media Egypt and Hong Kong have encountered various similitudes with respect to their media narratives. They have both experienced unavoidable government direction. Egyptian media has been controlled by government offices with greater part of the media house being state possessed. Then again, after the 1997 handover, Hong Kong media has encountered expanding control by the Chinese government which assumed control from the British pioneer control. Dominant part of the Hong Kong media senior staff have been consumed by the Communist government. With the unfurling of these occasions, in 2011, Hong Kong Press Freedom Index dropped altogether to 54th place from 34th (Weisenhaus, D 2014, p.273).This was a noteworthy drop and an exhibit of the unfurling occasions in regards to media control in Hong Kong under the careful gaze of the Communist government. In that capacity, both Egypt and Hong Kong have encountered an impressive media control from different administrative organizations (Hackler 2006, p.331). Both Egypt and Hong Kong have laws that secure the flexibility of press, in Egypt, Article 48 of the constitution expresses that the opportunity of press, production and data is ensured. The law additionally expresses that any oversight of the daily paper is likewise precluded; this incorporates suspending and cautioning of daily papers by the organization. This law just allows constrained restriction of any material being scattered in the media in the midst of emergency that directly affects the nation's security. Essentially, in Hong Kong, the Basic Law, Article 27 ensures the flexibility of production and press in the nation (Chan and So 2002, p.324). There are different arrangements under Article 39 which additionally ensure the media (Chan and So 2002, p.324). Both of these nations in this manner have arrangements that ensure the flexibility of the media in spite of the difficulties experienced in the two cases. As per Sakr (2013, p. 45) Egyptian news coverage has been attempting to pick up opportunity from the official control. In the wake of 2005 multi-competitor decisions, encourage columnist were propelled to go past the standard and report gigantic defilement, and different indecencies of the legislature. Significant changes in the media structure emerged in 2011 as writer discovered escape clauses in the web to go around government activities of confining the media. Dodging intermediaries and other web limitations were utilized to access web-based social networking, for example, Facebook and Twitter. Columnist utilized this casual online space to challenge deception from the prevailing press about the declining fame of authoritarian administration under the previous president Hosni Mubarak. This media control battle proceeded after the Mubarak and Mosri administration to the present administration under President Sisi. The legislature under these three presidents has dependably attempted to control the media with a specific end goal to propel their advantage and conceal the deficiencies of their authority. So also, in Hong Kong, amid the British organization, the media was given flexibility however there were confinements particularly in regards to the British organization. The administration supported feedback of the socialist countries including China yet confined spread of data condemning the British government. After the handover of control in 1997, the Chinese government has additionally fixed the hold on open media control by engrossing significant players in the business and terminating the individuals who dismiss their standards. This is plainly prove by the sacking and murder of Kevin Lau, a prestigious columnist early this year. The battle to free the media from prohibitive government control will undoubtedly proceed in these two countries. Contrasts amongst Egypt and Hong Kong media The media narratives of these two countries are distinctive from multiple points of view. These distinctions are mostly a direct result of the legislatures that have been responsible for time. Hong Kong was under British control for a long time until 1997. Over this period, Hong Kong appreciated press flexibility as there was no control when contrasted with the terrain China. Natives were permitted to condemn Chinese administrations. Subsequently, Hong Kong turned into the home to real Asian media, for example, Asian Wall Street Journal, and Epoch Times, and the counter socialist gathering. Despite what might be expected, Egypt media has been intensely controlled by the state in all areas including news offices, communicate and print media. Truth be told, the main Egyptian news houses, for example, Al-Akhbar(The News), Dar Al-Tahrir (The Liberation House) and Al-Ahram (The Pyramids) are altogether controlled and claimed by the administration. The Shura Council oversees arrangements of editors and other key basic leadership individuals in the media (Kouddous 2011). As indicated by Kouddous (2011) 84 % of the populace in Egypt relies upon people in general media, for example, the TV as the fundamental wellspring of data. The web is however expanding in notoriety as the principle wellspring of data to the populace; this was especially apparent amid its current insurgency that prompted the expelling of the Mubarak administration. The other significant contrast between Hong Kong and Egypt is the way that Hong Kong has not encountered any real media battle as it was as of late experienced in Egypt. Regardless of the apprehensions experienced after 1997 when China continued control of Hong Kong, the feelings of dread against free press did not emerge. Hong Kong media assurance is profoundly established in the constitution; Article 27 of Hong Kong essential law and in addition Article 16 of the Bill of Rights. Actually, Egypt has encountered an exceptional battle for a free media particularly under the Mubarak administration. As indicated by Kouddous (2011) amid the uprising, most bloggers and writer were captured, hassled and executed by the administration for announcing combative issues in the media. In spite of the long authentic state control of the general population media in Egypt, the pattern has taken another turn particularly after the removing of the Mubarak administration. The overwhelmingly state claimed satellite TV before 2011 are presently being possessed by people who are not master government. As per Iskander (2012, p.123) exclusive daily papers has expanded since 2011.Majority of the Egyptian populace is presently on the web; around 29.8 million by 2012 (Sakr 2013, p.47). Prominently, amid the 2011 uprising, the web-based social networking, principally Facebook and Twitter were utilized to sort out monstrous mobs that saw the finish of the Mubarak administration. This is a positive pointer to the pattern in the control of the media in Egypt. Elective media, for example, online web-based social networking which is difficult to control is ceaselessly constraining the administration and other administrative bodies to unwind their hold on the media. On the other hand, the less directed media in Hong Kong is confronting dangers from the legislature. As of late, on the 26th February 2014, Kevin Lau, an eminent columnist known for his firm detailing against the Chinese government was killed by an attacker suspected to be an administration specialist (Weisenhaus, D 2014, p.277). Gigantic shows were seen because of Lau's merciless murder. Conclusion As fundamentally talked about, there are various similitudes and differenced between the narratives and controls of Egypt and Hong Kong media. Egypt has been under government control for a considerable length of time in spite of the arrangements taking into account free press. Likewise, Hong Kong flexibility of press has been limited by the Chinese organization, in spite of the opportunity experienced under the British state, some confinement against distributions that imprinted the British government existed. With the present Chinese administration, Hong Kong's media has endured a noteworthy blow that has seen it drop in positions as per the Press Freedom Index. The two countries have encountered viciousness and detainments of famous columnist. The current murder of Kevin Lau in Hong Kong is a case of this unfurling. In Egypt, all the three administrations, the Mubarak, Morsi and Sisi have detained and imprisoned columnist who report data which gouges the picture of the present administration. Then again, Egypt has had a long history of press limitation until 2005-2011 which denoted the beginning of a free press through elective data dispersal, for example, the web. Alternately, Hong Kong has appreciated a noteworthy press flexibility in the course of recent years under the British province. This has seen Hong Kong give a protected home to significant worldwide media, for example, the Asian Wall Street Journal. This establishment has however been shaken by the Chinese administration which assumed control from the British control in 1997. All things considered, these nations have encountered both comparative and distinctive media challenges.>GET ANSWER