Discuss under the following headings:
– Introduction & epidemiology
– Pathogenesis(aetiology, risk factors. Tec.)
– Pathology – macroscopic and microscopic features where appropriate
– Clinical presentation and complications
– Comment & conclusion relevant to Chinese Medicine practice
– Reference – at least 5(2 of which have to be from journals or published articles)
Record your case scenario number on the marking criteria sheet
Case scenario 1
A 23 year old woman sees her physician because she has noticed a lump in her right breast. Her physician palpates a 2 cm, firm and circumscribed lesion in the upper lobe of her right breast.
Biopsy confirmed a malignant lesion
Case diagnosis: Breast carcinoma
Case scenario 2
A 25-year-old lady visits her GP with complaints of colicky abdominal pain and passing blood in the stools for the past 3 months. Colonoscopy revealed ulcers in the colon and areas of haemorrhage.
Case diagnosis: Ulcerative colitis
Case scenario 3
A 52 year old gentleman was seen at the clinic complaining of constipation and abdominal bloating sensation for 5 days. He also claims that his bowel movements have become irregular; it used to be once a day and then it became once in 2 days and sometimes he had to strain and there was a bit of bleeding. He underwent a left hemicolectomy. 2 weeks later, he was discharged and referred to the oncologist.
Case diagnosis: Carcinoma of colon
Case scenario 4
An 80 year old farmer complains of pain and swelling in his right knee for the past 5 years. He complains of stiffness in the joint when he wakes up in the morning and after moderate exercise. He says the pain is relieved by rest. His left knee appears enlarged and deformed. He has no associated systemic complaints.
Case diagnosis: Osteoarthritis.
To start, one should take a gander at the foundation of Enron and how it turned into "the biggest vitality exchanging organization on the planet" (Needle, 2004) in under two decades. Established in 1985 of every a merger between Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth, Enron extended from pipelines to power and web based exchanging. Enron was situated in Houston, Texas and it fabricated pipelines, control stations and gas plants in the USA and around the globe; Kenneth Lay was the Chairman and CEO. As per the narrative film "Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room", the landing of Jeffrey Skilling as CEO was a defining moment in Enron's business exercises. Skilling was a visionary initiator and he saw the eventual fate of Enron as a go between in across the country and worldwide vitality exchanging. The tide of vitality deregulation in the 1990s made it workable for Enron's senior administrators to persuade speculators, money related controllers, and the United States' Government that its offer of budgetary instruments otherwise called subsidiaries was monetarily solid. Authoritative CULTURE Authoritative culture was one of the critical angles which assumed a vital part in the defeat of Enron. Utilizing "Schein's layered conceptualisation of culture" (Rollinson, 2008) one can start by breaking down the center of the way of life otherwise called essential suspicions. In this layer, fundamental want of an association is to make riches for its investors, workers, and financial specialists. As uncovered in the narrative film, the administration and exchanging floors were fixated on estimation of the Enron stock from which riches would be created; individuals inside Enron actually did whatever they could to guarantee that the stock continued ascending to pull in assist speculations. The following layer in Schein's model is qualities and convictions. Here premise of reward and exertion are in a flash perceived as an essential part of Enron. As specified previously, Enron paid extensive rewards to representatives and accomplices who played out their activity uncommonly well. To get these prizes a few divisions of Enron misrepresented data with respect to their money related execution. In this layer we additionally discover trust and trustworthiness which Enron received from its clients and representatives until its destruction. Indeed the stun and incredulity of its workers and clients clearly bolsters the idea that Enron was a regarded business in the financial specialist group and in the legislature. The last layer, ancient rarities and manifestations, are those most noticeable to the overall population. As the seventh biggest organization in the USA there was generally a great deal of reputation viewing Enron as the pioneer in advancement having gotten the Fortune respect of "America's Most Innovative Company" six years in succession. It turned into a standard on the exchanging floors to work extra minutes in any expectation of accepting rewards. In the narrative, a neighborhood cleric uncovered how a few representatives came to see him for guiding as they felt that Enron might have been "assuming control over" their lives. Images of chain of command were additionally unequivocal; Kenneth Lay, Skilling and most senior supervisors involved huge workplaces in the best floors while dealers worked on the lower floors. Legends and stories is an extremely fascinating viewpoint since senior administration coursed stories with respect to malevolent outings inciting the possibility of a macho culture where it is praiseworthy to go out on a limb. This facilitated the idea that it was satisfactory for individuals at all levels in the Enron progressive system to go out on a limb to grow the organization. To wrap things up, taboos were viewed as the few however emphatically blunt reactions it got by couple of financial specialists and writers; these were disregarded totally. This limit obliviousness assumed a noteworthy part in its destruction since it could in any case be good to go today on the off chance that it had reacted to early feedback. Pioneer There are a great deal of definitions for the expression "Pioneer". One of the definition which suits the pioneer for this situation examine being "A man who holds a predominant or prevalent position inside its field, and can practice a high level of control or impact over others". Jeff skilling, the CEO of Enron has been delineated as the pioneer for this situation. He was forceful, smart and had praiseworthy administration characteristics which was incremental in making a culture of hostility and boosted rivalry in the association. He needed to change the manner by which Energy was being exchanged. He prevailing with regards to starting a business opportunity for petroleum gas wherein it began being exchanged as stocks. He changed over vitality into a money related instrument and this prompted Enron turning into the biggest vitality broker in North America. In the film, Bethany has said that Jeff Skilling was an uplifting pioneer who enlivened his work constrain and engaged them. He was a virtuoso who controlled the workplace with his insight, requesting that representatives trust that they are the best gathering of workers and comprehend that they are related with the best association on the planet. Initiative TRAITS Attributes are recognizing characteristics or qualities of a man, while character is the whole of these qualities. The a greater amount of these you show as a pioneer, the more your adherents will accept and confide in you. The five authority attributes/administration characteristics are straightforward, forward-looking, skilled, motivating and smart. Jeff skilling was especially forward-looking in nature as he generally needed to make most extreme out of the business and needed Enron to be one of the biggest association on the planet. He was helpful to numerous individuals including the investors, representatives, media and even stock merchants/expert. These individuals aimlessly tailed him in light of his appealling initiative style. He was one the clever personalities in Enron. Under his initiative the association changed from a little vitality showcase player to the greatest vitality exchanging organization in North America with a quickly growing worldwide activities arrange. The organization was being driven by the forceful and individualistic state of mind which was unequivocally instilled in the framework by Jeff Skilling and the arrangements of the administration group for accomplishing here and now benefit. These were effective in accomplishing the outcomes looking back yet were genuinely harming the moral adjust in the framework. His magnetism had numerous dim side inclinations which neglected the moral side of the business driving the organization to go down in a couple of years time period. Authority STYLE A powerful meaning of initiative states as takes after: "The procedure whereby one individual impacts other gathering individuals towards the fulfillment of characterized gathering, or authoritative objectives." (Barron and Greenberg, 1990). The instance of Enron singles out two people specifically with authority characteristics to be specific Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling. Gathering individuals might be thought to be the representatives of Enron however in the narrative specified above, numerous say that the dealers playing out the everyday business exercises are those most affected by the CEO. From the statement one can likewise observe that the merchants' want to be known as the ones profiting for the organization and the want for Lay and Skilling to be rich and persuasive are two objectives which go well as an inseparable unit. Be that as it may it might be this shared want which blinded the two accomplices and drove them to eagerness and lawlessness. It is currently one swings to the part of administration in the destruction of Enron. Albeit both Lay and Skilling basically are supervisors named by those with the most offers in Enron, it is apparent that amid their residency they had administration characteristics which influenced their subordinates. Utilizing first the unmistakable way to deal with administration (Rollinson 2008), one can watch that numerous individuals inside and outside the Enron appreciate Lay for his ascent from an unobtrusive minister family to a "Washington-insider" and CEO of a billion dollar organization. In America, independence is viewed as the prevalent working environment culture and as CEO of Enron Lay's impact was along these lines critical. Fundamentally Lay encapsulates the entrepreneur dream in the US specifically. Having gotten the administration shelf Lay gruffly misled his subordinates and speculators in regards to the money related province of Enron as it confronted budgetary troubles. This delayed the time of obligations and might be the motivation to the speed of the inevitable fall. Jeffrey Skilling and in addition being the selected CEO had authority characteristics of an alternate kind. The practical way to deal with administration (Rollinson 2008) demonstrates that Skilling ostensibly obtained his initiative status as authorize with the visionary development of Enron into the web based exchanging medium. Unexpectedly, it is likely this new complex exchanging cleared route for the bookkeeping misrepresentation to come and caused the destruction. A perspective maybe less researched yet which additionally influences authority is the possibility of corresponding causality (Rollinson 2008). The adherents, for this situation the workers; as a byproduct of their devotion to the pioneers likewise request something consequently. It is recognized that numerous dealers got huge rewards for making riches for the organization. Best case scenario this gave representatives impetus to buckle down with devotion and work extra time and even under the least favorable conditions it drew in a few, specifically merchants, in wrongdoing as appeared in the narrative with the "California power outages". 5.1 Transactional and transformational administration In value-based administration, the pioneer holds the power and has the control over his workers or devotees. He gives motivating forces to adherents to do what he needs. Thus, if a worker does what is wanted, a reward will take after and he or she doesn't, a discipline or with holding of the reward will happen. In transformational initiative, positive changes can be seen in the adherents. Transformational pioneers are exceptionally vivacious, energetic and enthusiastic by nature. They are for the most part worried about the procedures and are constantly engaged with it to improve it even. These sorts of pioneer collaborate with their representatives, mull over their recommendations and push them to succe>GET ANSWER