Child and Adolescent Development

PSY 223 Scenarios and Data Sets
Scenario 1 (Child and Adolescent Development)*
The question was investigated of whether (a) age at which infants start to crawl is related to (b) seasonal
temperature six months after birth. “Six months after birth” was targeted as the period in which babies
typically first try crawling. For a large sample of babies, (a) time at which crawling actually began and (b)
average monthly temperature six months after the birth month were collected. The data are shown
below (also found in the Data Set Scenario 1 Excel file).
Month Average Age Starting to Crawl
Average Temperature 6 Months
After Birth Month (in units
January 29.84 66
February 30.52 73
March 29.70 72
April 31.84 63
May 28.58 52
June 31.44 39
July 33.64 33
August 32.82 30
September 33.83 33
October 33.35 37
November 33.38 48
December 32.32 57

  • Adapted from this study: Benson, J. B. (1993). Season of birth and onset of locomotion: Theoretical
    and methodological implications. Infant Behavior and Development, 16, 69–81.
    Scenario 2 (Forensic Psychology)
    Levels of groups’ certainties about their eyewitness testimony to a simulated crime were compared. The
    first group was set up to be “right” in its eyewitness accounts and the second group was set up to be
    “wrong”; the desire was to see if confidence differed across groups. Thirty-four participants were
    recruited from a college campus and randomly divided into two groups, both of which were shown a
    video of a crime scenario (length: 58 seconds) in which the perpetrator’s facial characteristics (with
    respect to the camera) were clearly visible at two separate points and sporadically visible at others. Half
    the participants then were shown a five-individual lineup that contained the perpetrator in the video
    (“Group A”), and half the participants were shown a five-individual lineup that did not contain the
    perpetrator (“Group B”). Participants were asked to (a) identify if and where the perpetrator was in the
    lineup and (b) provide a rating of confidence on a scale from 1 to 10 (10 being highly confident) that the
    selection was the same as the person seen in the video committing the crime. All participants signed
    consent forms, were told they could leave the study at any time, and were told they would be debriefed.
    Data on the confidence ratings are shown below (also found in the Data Set Scenario 2 Excel file).
    Group A Confidence Group B Confidence
    07 10
    10 05
    09 05
    10 10
    08 07
    05 06
    10 10
    10 09
    01 03
    10 06
    05 04
    06 10
    07 10
    06 10
    04 03
    05 07
    10 08
    Scenario 3 (Mental Health)
    The efficacy of two kinds of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in relation to a clinical population were
    compared. The therapies differed on the dimension of how wedded they were to the rational-emotive
    behavioral therapy (REBT), a subtype of CBT that emphasizes a directive, confrontational approach to
    encourage a patient to recognize the irrationality of specific thought patterns. Forty adolescents at an
    inpatient clinic for treatment of self-destructive behaviors were randomly divided into two groups of
    equal size, one of which received the less challenging type of CBT (Treatment A) and one of which
    received the more challenging kind of CBT (Treatment B). All patients were treated by trained therapists
    in one-on-one sessions for 1.5 hours per day (broken down into 45-minute sessions) for six weeks. All
    participants were apprised that they were part of a study, all participants signed consent forms, and all
    were told they would be informed of the results at its conclusion; participants exhibiting any behaviors
    that required critical intervention were promptly treated outside the plan of the study. Outcome data
    on the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC)-PAR Edition* collected at the conclusion of six weeks
    as shown below (also found in the Data Set Scenario 3 Excel file).
    Treatment A Treatment B
    74 80
    50 82
    70 49
    60 44
    30 60
    37 65
    34 77
    40 45
    39 51
    70 70
    19 53
    43 16
    25 38
    15 44
    20 29
    55 51
    48 54
    42 46
    60 18
    27 61
  • Instrument has been validated for use with the population under consideration.
    Scenario 4 (Addictions)
    The efficacy of a new addiction medication was evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, doubleblind study. The medication in question, Antaquil, is intended to moderate the symptoms of alcohol
    withdrawal and craving with minimum side effects. Over the course of three weeks, a sample of 36
    individuals who were recovering from alcohol addiction were randomly assigned to two groups: one
    administered the medication and one administered a placebo. At the end of the designated period,
    participants were administered the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), an instrument that
    provides a global measure of thoughts about alcohol during nondrinking periods. Scores can range from
    0 to 40 with higher scores signaling higher levels of rumination about alcohol. Prior to participation
    participants were all informed of the nature of Antaquil and were told they could leave the study at any
    time. Outcome data on the OCDS are shown below (also found in the Data Set Scenario 4 Excel file).
    Treatment Gp Placebo Gp
    40 37
    35 35
    27 34
    18 24
    30 29
    28 14
    11 23
    23 25
    30 32
    13 37
    16 30
    17 30
    26 29
    22 22
    19 23
    17 31
    29 28
    10 20
    Scenario 5 (Social Psychology)
    The question of whether Friday the 13th is an unusually unlucky day or whether this idea is just
    superstition was evaluated. Researchers in the United Kingdom examined the relation between (a)
    numbers of traffic accidents on past Friday the 13ths versus (b) numbers of accidents occurring on
    Friday the 6ths (all between July 1990 and November 1992).* The data shown below were collected
    (also found in the Data Set Scenario 5 Excel file).
    Friday the 6th Friday the 13th
    139,246 138,548
    134,012 132,908
    137,055 136,018
    133,732 131,843
    123,552 121,641
    121,139 118,723
    128,293 125,532
    124,631 120,249
    124,609 122,770
    117,584 117,263
  • Adapted from this study: Scanlon, T. J., Luben, R. N., Scanlon, F. L., & Singleton, N. (1993). Is Friday the
    13th bad for your health? BritishMedical Journal, 307, 1584–1586.
    Scenario 6 (Applied Psychology)*
    The question was investigated of whether pleasant aromas help a student learn better. All 21
    participants learned both under a condition of smelling nothing and under a condition of smelling a
    floral scent. Counterbalancing was followed so that some participants learned without the scent first
    and some learned with the scent first. All participants were apprised that the scents were “safe” and
    that if they wished they could leave the study at any time. Data in terms of “time (in seconds) to
    complete a pencil and paper maze” are shown below (also found in the Data Set Scenario 6 Excel file).
    Unscented-Trial Scented-Trial
    38.4 53.1
    46.2 54.7
    72.5 74.2
    38.0 49.6
    82.8 53.6
    33.9 51.3
    50.4 44.1
    35.0 34.0
    32.8 34.5
    60.1 59.1
    75.1 67.3
    57.6 75.5
    55.5 41.1
    49.5 52.2
    40.9 28.3
    44.3 74.9
    93.8 77.5
    47.9 50.9
    75.2 70.1
    46.2 60.3
    56.3 59.9
  • Adapted from a study by Hirsch & Johnston at the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation:
    The Data and Story Library. (1996). Retrieved from http: //lib.

Sample Solution