Identify a welfare-to-work program from another state of their choice. (TENNESSEE) Evaluate the chosen program by comparing it with a similar welfare-to-work program in Mississippi. Provide a brief history, the social welfare policy that supported the program, identify the cost, beneficiaries, strengths and weaknesses about both programs. Also, identify any lessons learned from the other state and discuss how it that can help to improve the Mississippi welfare-to-work program that you compared. Conclusion and at least three recommendations should be included.
esults to pilot errors. CRM aims at harnessing personal skills in all these areas to reduce crew errors (Diehl, 1991). In order to reduce aviation accidents, CRM programs have been aimed at addressing two main areas including aeronautical decision making (ADM) and situational awareness. Aeronautical decision making include judgment training programs which are cognitive based. It is aimed at enhancing attitudes and behavior of the crew members. These skills have been applied to train other crew members apart from pilots. Training on ADM is based on the fact that decision making comes from a feedback mechanism where the pilot has to manage his or her attention and make prompt decision to save flight in case of danger. On the other hand, situational awareness is aimed at enhancing attention and task management for the pilots. This is aimed at helping the crew to manage the situation at hand using the most appropriate technique. In both civil and military aviation, records shows that CRM has reduced the number of fatal accidents and aircraft mishaps which can be attributed to human errors. In U.S Navy, the rate of aircrew mishap was reduced from 7.89 in 1986 to just 1.43 in 1990 after CRM was adopted, representing an 81% improvement. In USAF, a five year period comparison before and after CRM was adopted in 1985 shows that the number of aircrafts destroyed due to crew error reduced from 21 to 10, a 52% improvement (Diehl, 1991). There is evidence in civil aviation that exemplifies how CRM has helped crew to manage situations at hand. For example Captain Al Haynes of United Airlines Flight 232 credited CRM for having their life while flying in Sioux City, Iowa, in 1989. In this situation the traditional concept of ‘captaincy’ was ignored and all pilots on board gave their contribution which effectively saved the whole aircraft and those on board (Dorsett, 1993). History CRM and Evolution of CRM Training CRM can be traced to1980s when United Airlines first started CRM classes. The root development of CRM can be traced back to a workshop that was held in 1979 by National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The 1979 conference was an important turning point in the history of Crew Resource Management as it provided the base for exploration of the increased number of accidents that were related to human error (Aviation Knowledge, 2010). The conference was considered an outgrowth of NASA research which was aimed at exploring the cause of increased air transport accidents. The NASA research, which was presented in the conference, made reference to human error in the recent accidents citing a number of factors including failure for communication, delayed or wrong decision making, leadership, and others. It was during this meeting that the label Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) came to be used to refer to the process of training crews in efforts to reduce human pilot error during flight through use of human resources on the flight deck (Helmreich, Merrit and Wilhelm, 1999). This conference had brought together major carriers in United States and a number of carriers present became committed to put in place training programs that would ensure pilots were well trained on how to harness human resources during flight. From that conference, many airlines put in place programs that were aimed at enhancing crew resources on the flight deck. United Airlines became one of the first airlines that put in place a CRM program that trained all its pilots on how to use human resources on the flight deck (Helmreich et al., 1999). Almost every airline today has a CRM program running. In addition, CRM has since then evolved to target all crews and the word ‘cockpit’ was replaced with the word ‘crew’ to reflect the t>GET ANSWER