M.K. is a 45-year-old female, measuring 5’5” and weighs 225 lbs. M.K. has a history of smoking about 22 years along with a poor diet. She has a history of Type II diabetes mellitus along with primary hypertension. M.K. has recently been diagnosed with chronic bronchitis. Her current symptoms include chronic cough, more severe in the mornings with sputum, light-headedness, distended neck veins, excessive peripheral edema, and increase urination at night. Her current medications include Lotensin and Lasix for the hypertension along with Glucophage for the Type II diabetes mellitus.
The following are lab findings that are pertinent to this case:
BP 158/98 mm Hg
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.3 %
Arterial Blood Gas Assessment
PaCO₂ 52 mm Hg
PaO₂ 48 mm Hg
Cholesterol 242 mg/dL
HDL 32 mg/dL
LDL 173 mg/dL
Triglycerides 1000 mg/dL
1. What clinical findings correlate with M.K.’s chronic bronchitis? What type of treatment and recommendations would be appropriate for M.K.’s chronic bronchitis?
2. Which type of heart failure would you suspect with M.K.? Explain the pathogenesis of how this type of heart failure develops.
3. According to the B.P. value, what stage of hypertension is M. K. experiencing? Explain the rationale for her current medications for her hypertension. Also, discuss the impact of this disease in the U.S. population.
4. According to the lipid panel, what other condition is M.K. at risk for? According to this case study, what other medications should be given and why? What additional findings correlate for both hypertension and Type II diabetes mellitus?
5. Interpret the lab value for HbA1c and explain the rationale for this value in relation to normal/abnormal body function?
The term social stratification alludes to the gathering of social classes inside a general public. This is a particular type of imbalance, and the impact of this is sure gatherings in the public eye are viewed as having a higher status or rank than others in view of influence and riches. Social stratification works by society positioning which is situated in four segments. Social stratification can be passed starting with one age then onto the next, i.e. sovereignty, it is all inclusive yet shifts after some time and place, it is an attribute of society not singular contrasts and in conclusion social stratification likewise goes on convictions and not simply disparity (Wikipedia, 2014). Sociologists contend that some type of social stratification happens in each general public on the planet regardless of that everybody cases to need an equivalent society (Burton, 2013). Sociologists consider there to be three fundamental frameworks of stratification in the present social orders. These are servitude, the rank framework and the class framework. Subjugation has lawfully been nullified in numerous nations however there is still confirmation of no less than 400 million individuals living under conditions that add up to servitude. For those living in Sudan, Ghana, India, Pakistan, and numerous different nations with comparable standards, servitude is a typical thing to happen and in specific parts of Asia sex subjection is likewise normal. A standing framework is a social framework based on credited status. This is a status in view of qualities a man is conceived with, for example, race, sexual orientation, religion, age and so forth. In a position framework there is zero chance to change starting with one rank then onto the next and marriage outside of a man's standing isn't by and large allowed. Frequently in a position framework the relational unions are pre-masterminded between guardians instead of a decision of the person. A class framework is a social framework based on accomplished status. This is status that a man either procures or picks so isn't subject to where a man was conceived or a man's parentage. Those conceived in a class framework can pick their instruction, profession and accomplice. A man in a class framework may likewise begin off in one class however can move between classes (Spark Notes, n.d). For some sociologists the emphasis is on the station and class frameworks of stratification and the measure of social versatility inside that framework. This social portability is the simplicity of which a man can climb or down the class framework and will be founded on a man's riches or influence. In current western social orders, stratification is composed by class and separated into three primary layers, high society, white collar class and lower class. Every one of these classes would then be able to be separated into promote classifications controlled by things, for example, lodging areas (Wikipedia, 2014). A man's social class will rely upon where they are from, what they improve the situation a living, where they accomplished their instruction, their identity associated with and how intense them individuals might be, how much riches they have and their situation in the public eye. At the point when a man's social class is being viewed as their training won't by and large be viewed as, except if obviously they went to a high positioning instruction office. This individual will likewise need some high associations with be considered for privileged status. In the event that a man is inadequate with regards to any of these components they will be considered as center or even lower class, contingent upon their postcode or bank adjust, inside a western culture. In present day western social orders there are diverse classifications for social stratification, for example, age, race, sex, class, race or incapacity and in a few places there will be much more classes (Wikipedia, 2014). Social arrangement has occurred well before the cutting edge type of characterizing individuals started. Social stratification has been estimated in various structures; from asking individuals which class they believe they have a place in with utilizing a man's postcode. The two most utilized measures are both in light of occupation. The Registrar General's Standard Occupation Classification (SC) and the Socio-Economic Groups (SEG). The SC started in has been in the enumeration since 1901 and depends on a man's occupation which will can be categorized as one of six classifications: Professional, Intermediate, Skilled (Non-Manual/Manual), Partly Skilled and Unskilled. This is an ordinal measure that positions occupation, by ability and social standing. The SEG is comprised of 17 unique classifications and would in actuality cover all outcomes of business, house specialist, understudy and so on. This is an ostensible measure that positions occupation by business status (Anon, n.d). The SC has qualities and in addition shortcomings with its utilization. It is a straightforward framework with effectively generalizable classes. This framework is additionally helpful when needing to look at the adjustments in occupations held over some undefined time frame. Be that as it may, this framework does not seem to amass individuals it concentrates more on the occupation. Another issue with this framework is that the classifications don't think about the distinctions in salary between specific occupations. The SEC additionally has a few qualities and shortcomings to its dependability in estimating class. Its fundamental quality is that it has a more extensive scope of classes for individuals to consider, anyway its greatest shortcoming is that is still neglects to recognize certain individuals, for example, ladies, understudies and the jobless (Sociology Org, 2013). Having in excess of one method for estimating social class has caused numerous issues. As occupations have changed drastically finished the years there are numerous issues with the manner in which the SC and the SEG measures class. The greatest of the issues is that they are not intended to gauge the occupations of ladies, housewives, understudies or even the jobless satisfactorily. Despite the fact that this will for the most part be the most dependable as individuals will acknowledge what is advised to them by an administration body, for example, the Registrar General. In 1994 an administration survey of social arrangements occurred with the mean to audit the dependability of utilizing occupation to gauge social class, to survey the social class classifications and to evaluate the viability of the progressions made. These progressions occurred in 1998 and another characterization framework, NS-SEC, was presented starting in the 2001 enumeration (Anon, n.d). This change made to the manner in which occupation is estimated comes in eight classes to incorporate the distinctions in set areas. The classifications of the NS-SEC are: higher administrative and experts, bring down administrative and experts, moderate occupations (administrative, deals and administrations), little bosses and possess account specialists, bring down supervisory and specialized occupations, semi-routine occupations, routine occupations and never worked or long haul jobless (Wikipedia, 2013).>GET ANSWER