Apply your understanding of conflict theory, functionalism and symbolic interaction to social stratification. How does each of these perspectives explain Social Stratification? Use specific examples wherever possible.
For Example: For symbolic interaction, they do not assume stratification is good or bad. They would examine how people in social relationships give meaning to stratification. For conflict theory, stratification is a problem to be solved. For functionalism, stratification is the solution for motivation and reward.
(Lewis, 1986). There is much debate in the philosophical world as to what is defined as an intrinsic property, however for this essay the opinion of David Lewis will be considered. What is not intrinsic to an object is its relation to other objects and its position in space. These are called relational properties like ‘is greater than’ or ‘is close to’. For example, one may have two apples that are qualitatively alike in colour, shape, size etc, yet the fact that one is three feet away from the other is not relevant to their identities (Hales, Johnson, 2003). Numerical identity is important when defining Leibniz’s Law. This law states that: 1) two things that share all their properties with each other, are identical (the identity of indiscernibles), and 2) two things that are identical share all their properties with each other, both intrinsic and relational (the indiscernibility of identicals) (Lowe, 2002). To suppose two things indiscernible is to suppose the same thing under two names. This, in more algebraic terms, can be simplified to ‘For any x and y, if x is identical to y, then x and y have all the same properties’ (Stanford, 2015). In the natural world, this rule states that no object can be exactly alike to another object. However, this brings about a problem when one takes into account that persistence through time often amounts to intrinsic change, for example a banana changing from a seed, to a black rotten banana. One might say that your friend is the same friend that they were ten minutes ago, but what about when they were seven? These ideas seem to make sense according to our ‘common sense’ view of the world, but the definition becomes less clear when one takes into account change of the object. How can an object that persists through a change of intrinsic properties be the same identical object before and after this change? Many would affirm that this is the case. Irving Copi defines identity through time by the contrast of these statements. These statement on first glance seem to be both correct, but on further inspection many issues emerge. The first statement is ‘if a changing thing really changes, there can’t literally be one and the same thing before and after the change’. However, the second point is ‘if there isn’t literally one and the same thing before and after the change, then nothing has really undergone any change.’ (Stanford, 2015)This problem is most often named ‘The problem of temporary intrinsics’, and is resolution is essential to resolving the contradiction between an object persisting over time, and changing over time. An initial theory to discuss is presentism. According to Presentists such as Trenton Merricks, only things that exist without argument are things that exist in the present i.e. there is no such thing as change or time, as only the present may be considered. An apple at a t1 may be >GET ANSWER