Choose TWO of the following consciousness scholars. Compare and contrast their definitions of consciousness in a paragraph of not more than 400 words.
Susan Greenfield (Go over lecture that is posted on mycourses)
David Chalmers (Read extract from ‘The Puzzle of Conscious Experience’ posted on mycourses; also discussed by Blackmore in Chapter 2 of her book which is posted on mycourses)
Daniel Dennett (see relevant class ppt; also discussed by Blackmore in Chapter 2 of her book that is posted on mycourses).
NB: Useful additional source: Read Ch 4 (on David Chalmers); Ch 7 (on Daniel Dennett); and Ch 8 (on Susan Greenfield) in the book ‘Conversations on Consciousness’ by Susan Blackmore (2005). The book is available for free in the Hult e-library.
Question 2: 5 marks
Read the extract from Proust’s ‘Remembrance of Things Past’ that is posted on mycourses. We read this in class last week so it should be familiar to you. What is Proust’s main insight in this reading? Write ‘Option 1’ or ‘Option 2’ as your answer.
Option 1: His main insight is that his joy was not connected to the cakes and tea, but to his own inner consciousness – the memories and emotions triggered the taste and aroma of the madeleine cake and elderflower tea his mother served him.
Option 2: His main insight was that his joy was triggered by the exquisite taste of the Madeleine cake and the elderflower tea his mother served him.
Question 3: 15 marks
Write a paragraph of not more than 400 words discussing and summarising your understanding of qualia. Please base your discussion on the sources posted on my courses and on the material we have done in class, and illustrate it by means of a quale that is especially meaningful to you.
Question 4: 20 marks
Choose ONE of the following and answer in a paragraph of not more than 400 words:
According to Thomas Nagel, can we ever really know what it is like to be a bat? Why/Why not?
In your opinion, does Mary the colour scientist experience something genuinely new when she sees colour for the first time, or not? Give reasons for your answer.
Question 5: 20 marks
Read the case-study of Phineas Gage, and go over the questions and comments you and your classmates made on the annotated reading on his case-study that we did together in class.
In Damasio’s opinion, what light does Gage’s case-study shed on the relationship between the personality, values and morals of human beings and the physical brain?
The reason for this paper is to look at basically the fundamentals of initiative, with a specific spotlight on the things that cause a person to develop as a casual pioneer in the work environment. There are a few undertakings that are best overseen by colleagues who are gifted and have a ton of mastery. The paper begins with a presentation that depicts the conventional and current ways to deal with authority and the qualities of the speculations that examine initiative. The presentation is trailed by a portrayal of the situation of emanant administration. The situation clarifies the contrasts among doled out and emanant initiatives, and the benefits of the last mentioned. The following area clarifies how rising pioneers can apply various styles to suit various circumstances, and portrays the abilities of pioneers and how they use them to develop as compelling pioneers. The segment is trailed by the application and investigation area that portrayed the qualities of pioneers and how they use them successfully. The article closes with an end that clarifies how individuals from a group can respect the abilities and qualities of others so as to improve their administration aptitudes. Presentation Administration is fundamental for driving an association or a group towards accomplishing a shared objective just as individual objectives. A decent pioneer has the right stuff to persuade colleagues so they may achieve an undertaking rapidly and successfully. A powerful pioneer can keep the colleagues focusing on accomplishment and the individuals stay future arranged, are all the more persevering, and delay satisfactions (Felfe and Schyns, 2014). A sober minded pioneer comprehends the qualities and abilities of devotees and how they associate and their disparities. A viable pioneer builds up a reasonable vision of what they focus on and discusses the vision with the individuals that they plan to lead. Such a pioneer remembers that a dream without an arrangement is essentially a fantasy and an arrangement without a dream is drudgery. All the more explicitly, this paper looks to analyze fundamentally the basics of initiative, with a specific spotlight on the things that cause a person to rise as a casual pioneer in the working environment. The Essence of Leadership Administration is an all encompassing range with respect to the capacity of an individual to control others in a group or an association. It tends to be seen as a social impact process in which the individual enrolls the assistance of others to accomplish an objective or achieve a specific assignment. As indicated by Dries and Pepermans (2012), the range is gotten from unrivaled mental energies, predominant strategies for task the executives, better capacity than control others, higher forces to inspire others, and prevalent intelligence and worth levels (Dries and Pepermans, 2012). Every one of these wellsprings of initiative makes a pioneer inside a specific degree. The speculations that are applied to explore administration spin around insight, attributes, conduct, situational connection, vision, capacity, and charm. All the more critically, a pioneer is said to be blessed with social powers that are respected by others so much that they copy the pioneer (Luria and Berson, 2013). The pioneer is credited for the prevalence of abilities, acclaim, information, or data that they have in their specialized topic. Situation In organizations that depend intensely on development, in particular, tech organizations, authority rise up out of any colleague with the capacity to lead. Murphy and Johnson (2011) include that as the business develops, business people feel the requirement for having pioneers with boundless opportunity of pushing the association ahead (Murphy and Johnson, 2011). The pioneers generally emerge from the group of representatives and are known as rising pioneers. In contrast to the alloted pioneers, emanant pioneers are not really procured legitimately into authority positions. Relegated pioneers get their power from their situations in the organization pecking order. The titles they are given, convey weight with the workers they lead and they anticipate that representatives should show regard for their position (Emery, 2012). Basically, the organization requests that the doled out pioneer ought to show the capacity to persuade others, more significant level of critical thinking and more prominent intelligence to legitimize the task. A developing head has countless engaging character qualities. In any case, a rising head takes errands intentionally, empowers agreements among laborers, helps associates to finish their undertakings, and contemplates the destinations of the organization. Basically, this sort of authority comes some time before the individual is formally recognized as a pioneer. Further, Carson, Tesluk and Marrone (2010) attest that such a pioneer gathers regard from associates and is seen as a creative worker since they buckle down (Carson, Tesluk and Marrone, 2010). Besides, they will in general be compassionate and reasonable when managing individual representatives since they are not constrained to exhibit their capacity to lead. Interestingly, it is normal for representatives to see that alloted pioneers as savvy, astute, and taught, regardless of whether they are most certainly not. Generally speaking, rising pioneers are increasingly viable when contrasted with doled out pioneers. At the point when an organization grasps new administration, it urges representatives to function as a group; along these lines, there is free collaboration among seniors and youngsters in various manners. As indicated by Emery (2012), an association utilizes a cross useful administration that permits an open correspondence, so all individuals from an association may happen in accomplishing the goals of the organization (Emery, 2012). Under emanant administration, the association stays away from bureaucratic and direct frameworks of authority since they repress receptiveness. Murphy et al. (2011) guarantee that free correspondence that is normal for emanant administration in the cross-practical administration, urges all individuals to partake in accomplishing hierarchical targets (Murphy and Johnson, 2011). All the more significantly, without open correspondence among partners, there could be a higher likelihood of misguidance and hindered improvement in a work environment. At the point when an association receives rising administration, it enables laborers to set their very own objectives, with the goal that they don't feel compelled when the organization defines the objective for them. The utilization of rising pioneers improves employeesâ€™ love for the association, due to the compensation and rewards, yet in addition in light of the sort of authority (Cã'tã© et al., 2010). Conversely, the allocated chiefs in the associations chip in as facilitators of strengthening with respect to laborers. They are selected to direct the employeesâ€™ obligations. Further, they make adjustments and offer proposal as representatives take a shot at their undertakings, utilizing measurements that they set to assess their own exhibition. Directors are allocated to handle the difficulties that the workers experience as they seek after their objectives. Such an administration depends on the rule that workers ought to be offered opportunity to act; along these lines, they could turn into their very own pioneers, and improve better methods for achieving objectives (Murphy and Johnson, 2011). The developing heads among the representatives help partners to set and change metric and parameters of their undertakings. In view of this, the workers feel urged to impart their inventive plans to associates, so they might be assessed and molded as per hierarchical needs. Hypothetical structure Rising pioneers could lead individuals successfully in the event that they grasp the distinction among administration and the executives. Basically, the executives is the part of doing things right while administration is the part of doing right things. A pioneer and an administrator assume various jobs, despite the fact that individuals will in general utilize the two terms conversely. For example, an administrator encourages the accomplishment of colleagues (Mumford, Watts and Partlow, 2015). Further, a director guarantees that individuals have whatever they require for progress. All the more critically, they encourage the accomplishment of the group by giving what individuals should be beneficial. They are typically all around prepared and have insignificant obstacles in their line of obligation. They are typically being prepped for the following level in the progression of the executives (Cã'tã© et al., 2010). Be that as it may, a rising chief is anybody in the group who has an ability, is innovative, has extraordinary thoughts, and has incredible involvement with a part of the business that can be valuable to the group (Felfe and Schyns, 2014). To be sure, their exercises depend on qualities, not on titles. The pioneer manages changes, challenges, and barely realizes what comes straightaway. A developing head doesn't have every one of the appropriate responses and can't manage colleagues with an iron clench hand in light of the fact that the assignment being completed could be a progression of chances just as snags that come at rapid, and the pioneer requires the interest of aggregate personalities and hearts to overcome. The job rising administration plays in an association features the reasons why top-down initiative is never compelling in a quick paced business condition. Basically, incredible pioneers rouse colleagues to become pioneers, as opposed to making supporters. They share their administration; along these lines, all individuals from the group invest wholeheartedly in their initiative style, and all look increasingly deft, more intelligent, and progressively equipped for executing long running assignments with unexpected and obscure difficulties. Not exclusively do the best colleagues enable various pioneers to reliably develop dependent on their qualities, however they likewise understand that authority can and ought to be situational, contingent upon the necessities of the group (Harms, Roberts and Wood, 2010). In certain examples, colleagues need an individual to show them the way, new instructing style, or a visionary. Hence, a developing head picks their style of authority like a golf player picks the club to use, with a determined examination of the current issue, the objective, and the best device for the assignment. Such pioneers can distil messages, anyway complex th>