Constitution of Medina and the Pact of Umar

1. On the basis of the Constitution of Medina and the Pact of Umar, how did the early Islamic community understand its relationship with non-Muslims? Did this understanding change between the period of the Prophet and the Caliph Umar?
2. How does the anonymous account of the Mongol conquest of Baghdad differ from Ibn al-Athir’s account of the Tatars (Mongols)? What do these differences say about the effects of the Mongol conquests?
3. On the basis of Ibn Rushd’s “Introduction” and al-Ghazali’s “Deliverance from Error,” would al-Ghazali support or reject Ibn Rushd’s defense of reason? Why or Why not?




























Sample Solution