- Define and explain the following phenomena, using examples when possible.
a. Item-total correlations
b. Coefficient alpha
c. Item discriminability (or item discrimination)
e. Standard error of measurement
f. Factor loading
g. Multi-trait multimethod matrix
h. Adjusted R2
i. Metric invariance
j. Correlated errors
- Find a measure for the following variables and provide a rationale for your measure. Indicate how you would validate this measure or provide validation evidence (e.g., cited from previous sources) and how you would use it in a study. Note that this question is more open-ended than others. You are welcome to select what is widely considered the best measure of a given construct or discuss how you would create and/or validate a new measure. You are also welcome to select more than one measure and use them as indicators of a latent variable; realizing that a single measure may be flawed but that a composite of variables or a latent variable may compensate for flaws in individual measures. What I’m looking for here is that the chosen measure(s) are justified given the context (how you intend to use them) which might include also discussing the advantages and disadvantages.
a. Core self-evaluations
b. Firm-level performance
- What are some advantages and disadvantages of archival data? How might you provide evidence for the validity of a measure derived from archival data?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of using survey data (self- and other-reports)? How might you provide evidence for the validity of a measure derived from survey data?
- Assume that you are working on a study of a relatively new construct, willpower, which is defined as the ability to overcome internal and external obstacles in pursuit of a goal. Reviewer 1 on your paper has suggested that your construct is not unique from the construct of grit, which is defined as the “ability to work strenuously toward challenges and maintain effort and interest over time despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress”, and thus, has asked that you provide evidence that grit is unique. Reviewer 2 has asked that since your construct is relatively new that you conduct a cross-validation study of the construct. The editor has suggested that the paper will be accepted if you can address these two points. Please discuss how you would solve the issues that the Reviewers pose.
- Compare and contrast the evidence necessary for content-related, construct-related, and criterion-related validity.
- Name at least 2 underlying assumptions of Classical Test Theory
- Describe the ladders of power and how it is used to transform a distribution of data. Be sure to note under which conditions it would be applied (Note: I am not asking you to list the specific name of the reexpressions).
- How does reliability affect the statistical power of a test?
- Write out the formulas for the following:
a. Classical test theory
- Methodologists have long criticized the proliferation of organizational theories and declared that too many of these theories are ambiguously specified, have been subjected to weak tests, and do not focus on important questions. Explain these critiques and develop recommendations for 1) individual researchers, and 2) academic institutional gatekeepers that would foster the development of strong theory and strong theoretical tests.
- Assume that you surveyed 300 employees, asking them to report on the following variables:
• job satisfaction (5 items),
• leader-member exchange quality (LMX; 6 items)
• organizational citizenship behavior (OCB; 8 items)
• counterproductive work behavior (CWB; 8 items)
• task performance (5 items)
He attempts to demonstrate to the Houyhnhnms that he isn't a Yahoo in nature in spite of the fact that he seems as though one. He speaks finally about wars battled for "religious reasons", England's legitimate framework, and his incredible love of his local nation. Nonetheless, the more he attempts to conceal human imperfections, the more they are known when he is addressed by the Houyhnhnms. The perusers' desire might be Gulliver's stay in the nation of the Houyhnhnms for his hot enthusiasm for the Houyhnhnms. Notwithstanding, finally, they presume that Gulliver is a yahoo in camouflage since he has all qualities a yahoo has and reject his solicitation to live there. Gulliver experiences a phase of change in book four, where he builds up an affection for the Houyhnhnms to the point that he wouldn't like to come back to mankind. He has a character emergency despite the fact that he doesn't know about it. He thinks about his loved ones as Yahoolike, yet overlooks that he originates from "English Yahoos". The Houyhnhnms believe that Gulliver is some sort of Yahoo, however better than the remainder of his species. He requests that they quit utilizing that word to allude to him, and they assent. This indeed communicates nauseate for human. 4. Elements of parodies in Gulliver's Travels 1. Stress the feeling of foolishness All through a lot of Part I, Swift parodies European practices by certainly contrasting them with over the top Lilliputian traditions. In these parts, Swift likewise plays with language such that makes jokes about humankind's faith in its own significance. At the point when the Lilliputians draw up a stock of Gulliver's assets, the entire undertaking is treated as though it were a genuine matter of state. The complexity between the tone of the stock, which is given in the Lilliputians' own words, and the express detail of the assets that are being stocked, fills in as a joke of individuals who pay attention to themselves as well. Thus, the articles that Gulliver is compelled to sign so as to pick up his opportunity are framed in formal, bombastic language. Be that as it may, the record is only a negligible and self-opposing bit of paper: each article accentuates the way that Gulliver is incredible to such an extent that, in the event that he wants, he could disregard the majority of the articles absent much worry for his own security. 2. uncover the grandiose idea of human culture In Gulliver's experience in Brobdingnag, a considerable lot of similar issues that are raised in the Lilliputian experience are presently raised once more, yet this time Gulliver is in the accurate inverse circumstance. A considerable lot of the jokes from Gulliver's experience in Lilliput are played in re>GET ANSWER