Choose 3 of the following questions and respond.
1)What is meant by a “continuum of confidence”? What are ways to get training and supervision to be a group leader? How does a leader multitask? Describe how these skills overlap.
2) Active Listening Do this active listening exercise-yes even if you have done it before-listen to another person for 3 minutes time yourself- have them talk about something emotionally important to them. Then repeat back what they have said getting the most important emotional points that they covered. Then ask them if you were able to remember and get correctly that main points of what they said and also ask them if they felt that you were really listening and emotionally understood what they were saying. Report what happened in this exercise.
3) Reflecting p37 What are the differences in the two examples of Reflecting?
4) Clarifying-It involves focusing on key underlying issues and sorting out confusing and conflicting feelings. Give an example from your own life.
5) Summarizing What are the ways summarizing can be used in the group?
6) Facilitating What are ways a group leader can facilitate group process? Give an example from a group that you have participated in.
7) Empathizing The leader must be able to discern subtle nonverbal messages as well as messages transmitted more directly. It is impossible to fully know what another person is experiencing, but a sensitive group leader can have a sense of it. The core of the skill of empathy lies in being able to openly grasp another’s experiencing and at the same time to maintain one’s separateness. What is overidentification?
8) Interpreting In Gestalt Art Therapy, the therapist would have the client make their own interpretation. Such as the color red in their drawing means she is happy and in love. A therapist might have made a completely different interpretation. If a group therapist makes an interpretation, it is important that the interpretation be presented as a hypothesis rather than as a fact and that the person has a chance to consider the validity of this hunch in the group. Why is it important to consider the cultural content of an interpretation-give an example.
9) Questioning Questioning is overused by many group leaders. Interrogation seldom leads to productive outcomes, and more often than not it distracts the person working. The use of questions that ask “what” and “how” may serve to intensify experiencing, while the question “why” is rarely helpful because it takes the emotional material to the cerebral level. Define “open ended questions” and “closed”ended questions- give an example?
10) Linking Which group leader makes frequent use of linking? One with a interactional focus or a leader-to-member communication? This skill calls on the insightfulness of the leader in finding ways of relating what one person is doing or saying to the concerns of another person. Give an example.
11) Confrontation Beginning group leaders are often afraid to confront group members for fear of hurting them, of being wrong, or of inviting retaliation. It doesn’t take much skill to attack another or to be merely critical. It does take both caring and skill, however, to confront group members when their behavior is disruptive of the group functioning or when there are discrepancies between their verbal messages and their nonverbal messages. What are two important considerations when confronting in a group?
12) Supporting Supportive behavior can be therapeutic or counterproductive. Explain.
13) Blocking What are ways the group leader need to block in certain activities of the group?
14) Assessing What do assessment skills include for a group leader?
15) Modeling What are the kinds of behaviors a group leader needs to model in a group?
16) Suggesting What is the difference between suggesting and advising? What are appropriate suggestions for a group leader to make?
17) Initiating What are the ways that a group leader can provide direction for the group? What happens when there is too much initiation and too little initiation?
18) Evaluation What question should a group leader ask themselves in evaluating their group? What could the group leader say to teach the group how to evaluate the group?
19) Termination What are ways a group leader needs to learn how to terminate both individually and in the group?
Respond to 3 of the questions below:
What are the advantages of co-leadership?
What mistakes do students often make in co-leading a groups?
Have you ever co-lead a group? What was your experience?
What problems can come up in co-leading a group?
What can you do if co-leading a group becomes difficult?
What are the advantages of co-leading?
What is Transference/ Countertransference?
How can problems occur for co-leaders?
Read this article and respond. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sacramento-street-psychiatry/201003/countertransference-overview
Is it valid to say that groups are a second choice treatment? Explain.
Why is it advantageous to make evaluation research a basic part of your group practice?
What does Yalom say about group practice and research? Who is Yalom? https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-therapy/201303/yalom-therapy-and-meaning
A capital structure concerns the arrangement of the risk of an organization or, all the more particularly, which is the relative support of the few financing sources in the sythesis of the aggregate commitments (Brealey and Myers, 1992; Gitman, 1997 and Weston and Brigham, 2000). Capital structure choice is extremely imperative for any association; each association needs a blend or game plans that in the end accomplishes or builds its gainfulness and general esteem. Distinctive options accessible to organizations to back its self in some cases through issuing shares securities, or some time from obligation, associations accomplish diverse blends tremendous or little measure of obligation. An association takes the blends, which increment their proficiency and benefit and its fairly estimated worth. These sorts of choices are extremely troublesome in a dubious economy. For example, In Pakistani situation presence of the large scale condition factors, for example, grand loan costs in twofold figures and unpredictability in economy and in political circumstances are enormous variables for the blend of capital structure. Thus, the financing choices encountered a critical ascent of expenses, what's more the lessening of the monetary movement, which additionally raise the vulnerability. In any case, numerous speculations and down to earth approaches contributed on capital structure, which at last give bottomless writing: Target Capital Struture For the foundation of an objective capital structure, the firm ought to break down specific factors, for example, blend of obligation, favored stock and basic value. The particular capital structure might be changed as needs be to conditions. The adjustment in capital structure happens because of the obligation proportion. On the off chance that the obligation proportion is underneath the objective level, the obligation ought to be issued to raise the capital. In the event that the conditions are backward, visa versa; the obligation proportion is over the objective the extension capital ought to be raised by issuing value. The firm, in its structure strategy, includes a harmony amongst hazard and return keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish the best mix to expand the company's esteem. There are four essential components, which impact capital structure choices, they are: Business chance The association's expense position Budgetary adaptability Administrative conservatism or forcefulness The over four factors generally decide the objective capital structure. In the event that no obligation is utilized as a part of the company's tasks, it is at more prominent business hazard while its positive obligation proportion is lower. On the off chance that the firm uses the obligation, the intrigue is deducted and the powerful cost of the obligation is brought down that is the significant purpose behind utilizing obligation in the company's capital structure approach. In the event that the company's wage is protected from certain charges, for example, devaluation assess shields, enthusiasm on at present extraordinary obligation, impose misfortune convey advances. In such conditions, the association's duty rate will be low and in that condition extra obligation won't be as beneficial as with a higher powerful assessment rate. In the event that the conditions are unfavorable the firm should raise the capital on sensible terms as relentless supply of the capital is important for long run achievement it is in the learning of treasurer that at the season of tight economy or working challenges the providers of capital give the assets solid monetary proclamations. It has, in this way watched requirement for stores and the aftereffects of the reserve shorted impact the capital structure. Thus, if the future requirement for capital is more noteworthy the outcomes of capital shorted turn out to be more regrettable. In this way the money related articulations ought to be more grounded. The administrative conservatism or forcefulness additionally impacts the capital structure, supervisors of various firms have diverse nature and perceptions or methodologies some are forceful than others and some are slanted to utilize the obligation to get more benefits. In spite of the fact that this factor is in successful to the ideal is esteem expanding capital structure, yet it has incredible impact on the administrative target capital structure. In general the objective capital structure is greatly affected by the over four components, because of which operational conditions can make the real capital structure change from the objective capital structure. Ideal Capital Struture Most great capital is a capital which boosts the value of the organization's stock it is likewise with a base weighted-normal cost of capital by and large known WACC. It doesn't essential increments or augments profit per share (EPS). Most extreme acquiring per share (EPS) isn't generally accomplished by fulfillment of the more noteworthy stock costs. With higher obligation proportion may bring about greatest gaining per share (EPS), however may likewise expands company's hazard level. Some obligation utilized by in ideal capital structure, however does not hundred percent (100%) obligation utilized. A few firms endeavor to accomplish diverse blends of ideal capital structure; however they couldn't accomplish this ideal capital structure or ideal point. There are numerous methods for the estimation of required rate of profit for value capital (RROE); through aggregating organization's long haul cost of obligation. Speculations Of Capital Structure It has been watched that the capital structure of various ventures fluctuate frame each other it is because of various reasons. In the event that we watch two distinct organizations from two unique organizations, for example, pharmaceutical organizations and carrier organizations the capital structure of the two organizations very not quite the same as each other. The reasons of the distinctive capital structure of the diverse firms and businesses are given in the hypotheses, which are subjected to exact tests. Present day capital structure speculations depend on the distributed articles of educators' Fransco Modigliani and Marton Miller (1958), by and large known as (MM). As indicated by MM the organizations esteem isn't influenced by its capital structure and they additionally contributed were that the capital structure is insignificant to an organizations tasks thus; MM has exhibited some unlikely suppositions such: There are no business costs There are no expenses There are no insolvency costs Financial specialists can acquire at an indistinguishable rate from enterprises Every one of the speculators have an indistinguishable data from administration about the association's future venture openings EBIT in not influenced by the utilization of obligation Despite the fact that a portion of the above suppositions are very impossible yet; they are vital as they show the conditions under which capital structure is unessential. MM have given doubtful suppositions as well as gave distinctive insights, which demonstrate the required pertinent capital structure and furthermore influence an organizations esteem. In this way MM presumptions gave the best approach to present day capital structure research and grew more sensible speculations of capital structure. The Trade-Off Theory The exchange off hypothesis is imperative hypothesis; since it manages the back and value. Which at last, clarify how firms back their wander for a period by value and obligation, hypothesis additionally talk about the upsides and downsides of both ways. Organizations' most ideal use change is slanted by company's alteration toward an ideal use is slanted by three highlights, for example, charges, expenses of money related trouble and office costs. Assessments And Bankruptcy Costs Assessment rate and use are decidedly related; markup is a duty deductible, it diminishes impose obligation and upgrades the after expense money streams being a duty subtracts cost. Organizations' get on hoist purpose of obligation if the expense charge is higher in light of the fact that Firms needs in their undertaking to broaden money streams and market esteem. Charges Shot of defaulting upgrades when the level of obligation far from most ideal point. At the point when firm inability to pay credit than energy of the firm will be exchanged from investors to bondholders who will endeavor to recuperate their wander all through the act of chapter 11. With money related pain organization may bring about two natures of insolvency costs. Immediate and backhanded costs coordinate cost contain managerial expenses of chapter 11 rehearse. These expenses will be bring down extent of the aggregate cost when the firm size is huge and the other way around with little size firm and may imperative variable in picking the level of the obligation. At the point when venture approaches of the organization change which brings about happening of aberrant expenses. Firm can diminish the shot of chapter 11 with chopping down costs on preparing, promotion, research, and advancement and so on. It likewise builds the clients' reservations about organization's offerings, which result in bring down deals, piece of the overall industry, client faithfulness, and piece of the overall industry cost and so forth. This involves the planned advantages from using influence are delineated by the dormant expenses of chapter 11. Mill operator And Modigliani Theory Modigliani and Miller (1958) give you a thought regarding that the estimation of the firm does not change when any change happen in the capital structure. Firms assemble add up to money streams for all financial specialists are unaltered regardless of the outcomes of capital structure. Adjusting the capital structure does not correct the aggregate money streams. Thus the general resources' esteem gives responsibility for money streams ought not change. MM contend if worth of the firm relies upon capital structure; which might be result in arbitrage opportunity in the ideal capital market. Moreover, capital structure choice might be neutralize when speculators and firm can approach at same rate. Regardless of the way that MM hypothesis is remains on various unfeasible presumptions, yet it introduces the basics hypothetical foundation for additionally explore. Office Theory Jensen and Meckling (1976) talk about the potential difference or connection between organization's administrators and investors, as per hypothesis supervisors don't have 100% premiums in firm. Officials are the delegates of the investors and endeavor to resources from bondholders to investors through dazzling more advances and enabling in hazardous resources. Data Costs And Signaling Effects Capital structure can likewise be clarify when divergence in I>GET ANSWER