Choose 3 of the following questions and respond.

1)What is meant by a “continuum of confidence”? What are ways to get training and supervision to be a group leader? How does a leader multitask? Describe how these skills overlap.

2) Active Listening Do this active listening exercise-yes even if you have done it before-listen to another person for 3 minutes time yourself- have them talk about something emotionally important to them. Then repeat back what they have said getting the most important emotional points that they covered. Then ask them if you were able to remember and get correctly that main points of what they said and also ask them if they felt that you were really listening and emotionally understood what they were saying. Report what happened in this exercise.

3) Reflecting p37 What are the differences in the two examples of Reflecting?

4) Clarifying-It involves focusing on key underlying issues and sorting out confusing and conflicting feelings. Give an example from your own life.

5) Summarizing What are the ways summarizing can be used in the group?

6) Facilitating What are ways a group leader can facilitate group process? Give an example from a group that you have participated in.

7) Empathizing The leader must be able to discern subtle nonverbal messages as well as messages transmitted more directly. It is impossible to fully know what another person is experiencing, but a sensitive group leader can have a sense of it. The core of the skill of empathy lies in being able to openly grasp another’s experiencing and at the same time to maintain one’s separateness. What is overidentification?

8) Interpreting In Gestalt Art Therapy, the therapist would have the client make their own interpretation. Such as the color red in their drawing means she is happy and in love. A therapist might have made a completely different interpretation. If a group therapist makes an interpretation, it is important that the interpretation be presented as a hypothesis rather than as a fact and that the person has a chance to consider the validity of this hunch in the group. Why is it important to consider the cultural content of an interpretation-give an example.

9) Questioning Questioning is overused by many group leaders. Interrogation seldom leads to productive outcomes, and more often than not it distracts the person working. The use of questions that ask “what” and “how” may serve to intensify experiencing, while the question “why” is rarely helpful because it takes the emotional material to the cerebral level. Define “open ended questions” and “closed”ended questions- give an example?

10) Linking Which group leader makes frequent use of linking? One with a interactional focus or a leader-to-member communication? This skill calls on the insightfulness of the leader in finding ways of relating what one person is doing or saying to the concerns of another person. Give an example.

11) Confrontation Beginning group leaders are often afraid to confront group members for fear of hurting them, of being wrong, or of inviting retaliation. It doesn’t take much skill to attack another or to be merely critical. It does take both caring and skill, however, to confront group members when their behavior is disruptive of the group functioning or when there are discrepancies between their verbal messages and their nonverbal messages. What are two important considerations when confronting in a group?

12) Supporting Supportive behavior can be therapeutic or counterproductive. Explain.

13) Blocking What are ways the group leader need to block in certain activities of the group?

14) Assessing What do assessment skills include for a group leader?

15) Modeling What are the kinds of behaviors a group leader needs to model in a group?

16) Suggesting What is the difference between suggesting and advising? What are appropriate suggestions for a group leader to make?

17) Initiating What are the ways that a group leader can provide direction for the group? What happens when there is too much initiation and too little initiation?

18) Evaluation What question should a group leader ask themselves in evaluating their group? What could the group leader say to teach the group how to evaluate the group?

19) Termination What are ways a group leader needs to learn how to terminate both individually and in the group?

20) Co-leadership

Respond to 3 of the questions below:

What are the advantages of co-leadership?

What mistakes do students often make in co-leading a groups?

Have you ever co-lead a group? What was your experience?

What problems can come up in co-leading a group?

What can you do if co-leading a group becomes difficult?

What are the advantages of co-leading?

What is Transference/ Countertransference?

How can problems occur for co-leaders?

Read this article and respond.

Is it valid to say that groups are a second choice treatment? Explain.

Why is it advantageous to make evaluation research a basic part of your group practice?

What does Yalom say about group practice and research? Who is Yalom?



Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.