How do contrary effects differ from disentitlements? Use an example of each to illustrate how the two concepts differ. Examine at least two significant differences in your response. Also, explain how these policies disempower or privilege clients. Use this unit’s readings to inform your discussion.
The EU can be divided into two parts. An intergovernmental structure which includes the European Council and the Council of Ministers and the regulatory structure which includes the European Parliament, European Central Bank (ECB) and the ECJ. Moravcsik and Majone emphasizing that effectiveness is one of the proper means to legitimise the EU, so the ‘output’ legitimacy is the best way to do this. An intergovernmental component, where international features dominate (European Council, Council of Ministers, and the second and third ‘pillars’ of the TEU), and a communitarian component where supranational features are most evident (European Parliament and Courts, Commission, and the policies and activities included in the first ‘pillar’ of the TEU). Now, even if it is true that the democratic character of the Member States is According to Moravcsik the EU does not deal with democratic deficit in the intergovernmental part simply because of its distinctive objectives where the preferences and the power of the states are important, where the policies are the result of states’ bargaining and where supranational elements are of less importance to policy outcomes. The EU is either a state nor a federation or a confederation and it avoids any risk of becoming a ‘technocratic superstate’. That makes the outlook and requirement of legitimacy different. The legitimacy of the EU system is derived from ‘indirect accountability’ of the nation state where ‘indirect democracy’ is enforced through the ratification from the treaties by democratically accountable governments. ‘Constitutional checks and balances, indirect democratic control by national governments, and the increasing powers of the European Parliament are sufficient to ensure that the EU policymaking is, in nearly all cases, clean, transparent, effective and politically responsive to demands of European citizens’. Moreover because of its simple and limited organisation, EU does not need the ‘input’ legitimacy to become legitimate. ‘The EU, broadly speaking, does not tax, spend, implement, coerce or, in most areas, monopolistic public authority. It has no army, police, and intelligence capacity, and a miniscule tax base’. Yet the EU enjoys sufficient democratic support. The institutions are supported by either direct or indirect accountability. The European Parliament is comprised by directly elected representatives and it is increasingly taking over powers from the Commi>GET ANSWER