Measuring the effect of policy on excess mortality:
Summarize the key findings from your report (in bullet form) & why is it valuable?
Use publicly available data from Ontario and British Columbia (BC) to compare the effect of COVID between the broader public and long-term care (LTC) residents. Then compare the effect of COVID on LTC homes between Ontario and BC. Why was Ontario’s LTC system already characterised to be in a state of crises?
Use publicly available data and reports to compare Ontario and BC in terms of the following pre-COVID LTC characteristics: i) resident profiles; ii) funding (per diem), staffing and direct hours of care; iii) ownership structure (Not-for-profit & For-profit status) and crowding/bed scarcity (how many in shared rooms?)
Compare Ontario’s to BC’s COVID-era LTC policy in terms of staffing (what is the main driver of this?)
Provide a high-level description of the difference-in-difference (DID) technique and why it might apply well within the context of long-term care in Canada.
Describe the concept of excess mortality; is it a key measure for the effect of COVID on LTC and can it help in the policy responses by Ontario and BC?
How might different pre-COVID LTC characteristics in Ontario vs. BC affect the interpretation of DID estimates?
Recidivism among the youthful male populace keeps on being a worry for society in the course of the most recent decade. In light of the National Institute of Justice, "Recidivism is estimated by criminal acts that brought about re-capture, reconviction or come back to jail with or without another sentence during a three-year time frame following the detainee's discharge" ("NRRC Facts and Trends"). In spite of the fact that wrongdoing rates have kept on diminishing, recidivism still represents an issue in the public eye today. The sociological point of view endeavors to comprehend human conduct by putting it inside its more extensive social setting (Henslin 2). The reason for this paper is to talk about the cultural issue of recidivism among the youthful male populace while concentrating on the sociological point of view of why people are powerless to re-irritating. While examining degenerate conduct it might be simple for one to just say recidivism is an issue in light of the fact that once individuals start carrying out violations it is too hard to even think about stopping. In any case, taking recidivism with regards to person's condition one can comprehend on a real level that we become familiar with our essential perspectives on the world from the gathering in which we grow up (Henslin 4). These perspectives direct our ideological standards, and in that regard it gets more earnestly to break burns of wrongdoing through ages. As a criminal equity major, it is imperative to comprehend the social ramifications that obstruct people to be effective upon reemergence. At exactly that point is it conceivable to improve strategies with respect to the jail framework and social administrations for incorporating guilty parties again into the network. As a general public, it is basic that one comprehends the recidivism rate regarding social structures rather that exclusively on moral duty. In doing as such, society can decide on approaches and bolster networks that see dull examples in the recidivism rate. Right now, the recidivism rate keeps on being the most noteworthy among detainees who are more youthful that 21. In view of an investigation directed by the U.S. Condemning Commission, it was discovered that 67.6% of detainees who were discharged while more youthful than 21 were re-captured ("NRRC Facts and Trends"). In correlation, 49.3% of every government detainee discharged were re-captured ("NRRC Facts and Trends"). The U.S. Registration Bureau reports that starting at 2010, the complete number of youthful grown-ups ages 18-29 in detainment facilities or prisons has started to decay ("NRRC Facts and Trends"). Furthermore, male youth in jail are multiple times almost certain than ladies to be in prison or jail ("NRRC Facts and Trends"). Despite the fact that the pace of imprisonment is diminishing for youthful grown-up guys, the recidivism rate remains generally the equivalent; recidivism is accounted for as low as 50 percent to as high as 70 percent relying upon the state. Henslin talks about that recidivism rates demonstrate the incapable procedure of our jail frameworks and thusly infers that penitentiaries neglect to instruct individuals that wrongdoing doesn't pay (219). The value that is paid because of youthful grown-up misconduct is impressive; seemingly, the most significant is the threat of raising another age with uplifting frames of mind towards wrongdoing and social deviation (Esmaili et al. 165). Among the prisoner populace, note that adolescent guilty parties have a novel arrangement of qualities, which make them bound to end up in the criminal equity framework. To start with, look into proposes that adolescent engaged with the adolescent equity framework have injury accounts that are multiple times higher than the general youth populace (Yoder et al. 251). Also, Yoder et al. demonstrates that adolescents likewise have higher paces of emotional well-being indications (259). It is sensible to reason that adolescent presented to early injury have an expanded hazard for misconduct and association with the criminal equity framework. As indicated by ongoing examination, African American, Hispanic, and teenagers with an open welfare case are at an expanded hazard for recidivism (Ryan et al. 7). It is anything but difficult to infer that minority young people who have encountered youth injury are at the most serious hazard for recidivism. So as to genuinely comprehend why the recidivism rate keeps on staying unfaltering in the United States, one must see how individuals fall into cycles of wrongdoing. Contingent upon sexual orientation, geographic area, and youth injury an individual might be bound to show freak conduct. Henslin utilizes the term abnormality to allude to any infringement of standards, however with the end goal of this paper the term will be utilized with regards to perpetrating a wrongdoing (198). One approach to take a gander at recidivism among the youthful male populace is to receive the mental point of view of seeing character issue. As expressed above, psychological wellness side effects are substantially more likely in this populace and the degenerate conduct may originate from freak characters (Henslin 201). In view of the sociological viewpoint, one would take a gander at the social impacts that reason youthful male wrongdoers to carry out wrongdoings. Among these variables incorporate socialization, social class, and participation in subcultures (Henslin 201). Another characteristic factor of recidivism rates is level of training, the lower the instruction level the more prominent the danger of freak conduct. As a methods for social control to implement social characterized significant standards, we rebuff detainees by imprisonment in jail (Behravan 286). Also, socialization is another factor that impacts recidivism. Socialization is expected to transform individual into acclimating individuals from society (Henslin 69). This idea is fundamental for our advancement as individuals, it shows us how to communicate with others, think, reason, and feel. Cuervo et al. examines in an investigation that there are qualities related with wrongdoing among youthful grown-ups, including impulsivity and absence of compassion (9). The examination reasoned that adolescent guilty parties with absence of compassion neglected to perceive the requirements and sentiments of others and at last thought that it was hard to build up relational connections (Cuervo et al. 12). Socialization is straightforwardly identified with one's encounters inside their general public, making it quite hard for people to break rehashed cycles of wrongdoing. Differential affiliation enables us to comprehend recurrent wrongdoers through the sociological viewpoint that from the various gatherings we partner with, we figure out how to stray from or acclimate with society's standards (Henslin 202). Besides, marks can be an amazing message to send adolescents and youthful guilty parties in the public eye. As indicated by Henslin, "to name an adolescent as reprobate can trigger a procedure that prompts more prominent inclusion in abnormality" (207). To put the term freak on a youthful male guilty party enables society to pass a negative social judgment and eventually closes entryways of chance. Besemer et al. deduced in an ongoing report that naming expands a person's relationship with reprobate people with people indicted for a wrongdoing between ages 19-26 (2). Also, marking impacts the person's self-recognitions, frames of mind, and convictions (Besemer et al. 2). The examination established that marking hypothesis was progressively common among youthful guilty parties who had a past or at present imprisoned parent (Besemer et al. 11). This discovering bolsters the idea that youthful male guilty parties are bound to fall into a real existence or wrongdoing on the off chance that they are associated to accept that degenerate conduct is the standard. Also, being a previous detainee holds a shame that is applied by official and social position holders, for example, cops, judged, and businesses (Behravan 287). Being marked as a freak through conviction may fill in as an unavoidable outcome to urge youthful wrongdoers to connect themselves in the public arena with individuals who have been correspondingly named. At last, sex assumes a significant job in the recidivism rate among youthful male guilty parties. As supported by Henslin, sex is an element that encompasses us in the public arena from birth and pushes us into various corners of life while sustaining a few practices and demoralizing others (77). One showing factor that fortifies sex messages is one's companion gathering. The impact of companion bunches is generally incredible and comprises of a gathering of people, generally a similar age, which are connected by basic interests and directions (Henslin 80). Probably the most outstanding contrast among male and female wrongdoers is the sorts of violations perpetrated and the rate at which wrongdoings are submitted. Asscher et al. directed an investigation that discovered male adolescent guilty parties submit increasingly sexual and crime offenses in contrast with female wrongdoers (222). This might be added to the male strength depicted in broad communications and computer games inside society; an expanded help that men adjust to savagery and sexual conduct. Thus, numerous means have been taken to address the concerning recidivism rate among the detainee populace. Quite one of the most persuasive advances is the ongoing government activity that plans to lessen recidivism rates. Wells and Hernon talk about the contribution of the National Institute of Justice and their progressing assessment of two government activities (72). The principal activity intended to lessen recidivism is the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative and the subsequent activity is the Second Chance Act. The Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative was contemplated among high-chance adolescent young men and found through the activity there were longer occasions before rearrests and less captures after discharge (Wells and Hernon 72). Also, the National Institute of Justice has granted different awards to ponder the viability of different projects with respect to diminishing the pace of recidivism (Wells and Hernon 73). These investigations are basic in creating the information expected to help forming reemergence approaches for remedial establishments. A definitive objective is to give programs that produce cost-sparing and powerful allots in keeping guilty parties of jail. Also, the North Carolina Department of Pu>GET ANSWER