Describe one critical health issue in your community or state that has grown larger or has the potential to become larger. Be sure to include any statistics available on the health issue. Tip: check your county and/or state health department Web site. Explain the factors that contribute to this health issue. Consider things such as access to health care services, economics, culture, attitude, education, health care policies, and so on. Describe any interventions your community or state has put in place to address the health care issue. Include information on how long the interventions have been in place, how the community was made aware of the interventions, and so on. Describe the scope and role of nursing and public health nursing in the interventions to reduce the health issue. Recommend evidence-based ways the scope of the interventions could be expanded to increase positive health outcomes. Think in terms of cost, efficiency and access, effectiveness, and the use of both conventional and unconventional interventions.
Hydrogen power module fundamentals What is an energy component In the present society, specialists are persistently scanning for new types of sustainable power source to limit ozone harming substance discharges (GHGs). Among the a wide range of reasons for environmental change in Canada, transportation is one of the main sources, from singular movement to the delivery of goods1. Nonetheless, specialists accept that the development and growing notoriety of electric vehicles in the ongoing years can enormously diminish the emanation of these GHGs. Among the assortment of electric vehicles, hydrogen energy component vehicles are turning into a feasible choice. Hydrogen power devices use hydrogen and oxygen as fuel to deliver power, warmth and water . Hydrogen energy components are charming as it requires the least complex and most bounteous component on earth, hydrogen. 2 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Structure and Chemistry As opposed to using the run of the mill procedure of improving to acquire hydrogens from hydrocarbons, hydrogen is rather gotten from water through electrolysis. Electrolysis is a procedure that prompts synthetic change by the entry of an electrical flow through a solution.3 Fig 1: Schematic demonstrating the essential functions of a Hydrogen power module and the science involved.Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fuel_Cell_Block_Diagram.png 4 All power modules are made of four significant parts: the anode, electrolyte, cathode and impetus. Hydrogen, the fuel, connects with the anode which comprises of an impetus, commonly platinum. The platinum oxidizes hydrogen and parts protons and electrons from the fuel. From there on, the electron moves to the cathode through an outer source which is frequently a wire, making an electrical flow happen. In the mean time, the protons move to the cathode through the electrolyte, which for example can be potassium hydroxide. Furthermore, the electrolyte is explicitly utilized for the movement of positive hydrogen particles, besides, the kind of substance used here will decide the sort of energy unit delivered. At the cathode, the protons and electrons in the long run rejoin and respond with an impetus, for example, nickel, and oxygen to deliver the result, water. At last, hydrogen is expended as fuel, power is made, and water is delivered as the waste item. In any case, all together for this response to happen consistently, a nonstop supply of fuel and oxygen is required. 5 The Different Types of Hydrogen Fuel Cells As recently referenced, in spite of the fact that power devices have a similar four significant parts, the sort of electrolyte utilized in the framework will decide the kind of energy component created, henceforth various hydrogen power devices can be found. For example, proton-trade layer power devices (PEMFCs) use bipolar plate, made of metals or graphite, which acts a terminal in the framework, notwithstanding, cost and support can be an issue. In like manner, direct methanol power devices (DMFCs), like PEMFCs utilize a proton-leading film as an electrolyte, notwithstanding, utilizes methanol as the fuel source, hence making both carbon dioxide and water the waste items. Then again, phosphoric corrosive power devices (PAFCs), use phosphoric corrosive, an acidic non-conductive fluid, as the electrolyte, be that as it may, this can bring about erosion. Antacid power devices (AFCs) despite what might be expected, utilizes a blend of potassium hydroxide and water as the electrolyte. AFCs have outstandingly been utilized by NASA in the Apollo space program. Moreover, liquid carbonate energy units (MCFCs), use liquid carbonate salts as an electrolyte to control certain mechanical and military material because of its amazing proficiency. In conclusion, strong oxide energy components (SOFCs) use a strong clay electrolyte called yttria-balanced out zirconia (YSZ) which are regularly planned as chambers because of its organization. Each energy component has its favorable circumstances and research is as yet being directed to deliver the most effective and ecologically cognizant hydrogen power module. Fig 2: Table demonstrating six unique sorts of energy units and their relative working temperature just as their appropriate application. Source: http://www.chfca.ca/training focus/how-power modules work/6 Uses of hydrogen energy units Transportation There is presently a wide assortment of vehicles that use hydrogen energy units to control their electric engines. The most well-known one is a FCV (power module vehicle), and in the course of recent years, more vehicle makers have been putting resources into the generation of these vehicles. Toyota, a flow industry mammoth, uncovered that in 2014 it would have cost around 1 million USD to make a hydrogen energy unit fueled electric vehicle, however on account of fast improvement of this innovation, in 2015 can be made for as meager as $50,000 USD, empowering shoppers to truly think about changing to this innovation. At the point when the innovation was new, you couldn't really purchase a FCV; just rent one for a couple of years; because of the expense of the energy unit innovation inside the vehicle. Another pioneer in the section, Hyundai, as of now rents its Tuscon FCV's for $499 USD every month in a 3-year rent term, which incorporates a fuel card that gives free fuel to cover 12,000 miles for each year. In any case, the principle issue with FCVs is the absence of framework, hence an organization called "First Element" started introducing hydrogen siphons at prior fuel stations, significantly reducing down expenses when contrasted with building an entirely different station only for hydrogen.7 The other fundamental technique for transport that right now uses this innovation is electric transports, called energy component electric transports (FCEB). They are at present working in various urban areas over the world and at last give a clean and ecologically benevolent strategy for transport for the general population. A preferred position of FCEBs over battery controlled electric transports is the productivity, as a significant issue with battery innovation is its absence of adequacy in outrageous cold temperatures. While hydrogen is considerably more steady and isn't influenced by outrageous temperatures. A third application for the energy units is in distribution centers and assembling plants that require the utilization of forklift trucks and freight taking care of hardware. Hydrogen energy components are fueling this hardware and giving a perfect option in contrast to gas or diesel-controlled other options. Additionally, they have a preferred position over battery worked units since there is no long charging occasions which implies that less units should be purchased so as to stay aware of the workload.8 Transportation of hydrogen: The underlying stockpiling and transportation strategies for liquidized hydrogen comprised of steel tanks that kept the hydrogen in a fluid structure at around 2000 PSI. This demonstrated to be a powerful path at capacity, and since Hydrogen in not destructive, there demonstrated to be no issues with debasement of the steel holders. Be that as it may, new advances in the capacity of Hydrogen has lined within these steel tanks with a carbon fiber composite material that incomprehensibly improves the solidarity to around multiple times that of steel alone and can even withstand a 100 MPH crash without tearing open. These advances in the treatment of liquidized Hydrogen enables a more secure vehicle of it to market and makes it an a lot more secure and engaging wellspring of energy.9 One of the present strategies for transport of hydrogen to market is the sharing of a solitary pipeline, with both gaseous petrol and hydrogen gas in a single pipeline, where the two gases are then isolated before use. This is an effective strategy for transportation given that the present foundation for petroleum gas as of now exists. Also, the nearness of gaseous petrol takes into account a quicker location of a hole in a pipeline due to the odorants that are added to the flammable gas. Additionally, an advantage is the support of potential vitality when contrasted with a vitality source, for example, electric; as there is a sure measure of lost vitality because of opposition in power links over long separations. Be that as it may, with hydrogen there is no misfortune in potential vitality, and this makes it a practical strategy for transportation.10 Hydrogen for shopper transportation is sold in different structures relying upon the necessary vitality requests and scope of a solitary tank; there is 2 normal and 1 less regular types of hydrogen that are utilized for transportation. The first is compacted hydrogen gas which is apportioned at either 5000 PSI or 10000 PSI. This is a typical structure for autos and transports. The other normal structure is cryogenic, super-cooled fluid hydrogen. The third type of hydrogen is a liquidized slurry that is a hydrogen rich compound. Frequently it is lithium hydride or magnesium hydride that is utilized and is a promising structure given that it tends to be put away at typical living temperatures and treated along these lines as some other fluid given its higher steadiness. A use of this would see the slurry conveyed to the corner store where it would be isolated into unadulterated hydrogen, and the result (Mg(OH)2 (milk of magnesia) would then be able to be come back to magnesium hydride for re-use. The benefit of a slurry over cryogenic hydrogen is that it has double the vitality thickness and is a lot less expensive to deliver and move. 11 Stationary Fuel cells: Stationary hydrogen energy components are static units that give power and warmth to an encompassing home or building. There are a few kinds, of which incorporate essential power units, uninterruptible power frameworks (UPS) and consolidated warmth and forces frameworks (CHP). The CHP frameworks give up to 10 KWe and have a general productivity of up to 95%. These frameworks are exceptionally handy for use in the private segment just as loft structures, nursing homes and medical clinics, and there have been more prominent than 10000 units propelled in Japanese homes. The main constraining component for the application in the private setting is the cost; which in Japan and south Korea is balanced by government endowments. The power device innovation in these units depends on either PEM (proton trade layer) or SOFC (strong oxide energy component) technology.12 An ongoing report (Herrmann et al. 2018), investi>GET ANSWER