Close Reading of a Text
Answer each bullet point in each section thoroughly. You may do this in an outline format.
1. Historical Context
There are a lot of ways to look at a piece of literature. One of these is to understand how it fits into the historical context. Look at when the work was first published (don’t get this confused with the printing date of whatever text you have). For example, Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was published in 1884 at a time when the question of race was of supreme importance after the events of the Civil War. Racism plays a large part in the novel, centering on Huck’s view of Jim in contrast to the way society views him. Apply this same perspective to the text you’re reading. You should consider what is happening both at the time of publication and at the time period in which the text is set; consider why the author chose to tell this story now and why they picked this time period to write about. Focus on events and movements that are culturally significant, not just random events that might have occurred. For example, Ozzy Osborne biting off the head of a live bat during one of his concerts is probably not going to have much significance to one of our books, but the Second Wave of Feminism drawing to an end in the 1980s very well may. DO NOT just look up “things that happened in” whatever year and pick random events.
• What else culturally significant to the text was happening at the time the text was written
• What else culturally significant to the text was happening at the time the story is set (if it’s different from the time period it was written in)?
• What political or social events were occurring?
• Does the author make mention of these either directly or indirectly?
• How do any historical events affect the text?
2. Narrative Point of View
All literary texts share one character in common: the narrator. The narrator is the person who is telling the story. However, there are different types of narrators, depending on the story. Narrators can be either first person or third person. A first person narrator uses “I” and tells the story from their own point of view, allowing their personal experiences and perspectives to color the way they tell the story. In first person narratives, the narrator is often the protagonist, or main character. However, sometimes in a first person narrative, the narrator is a secondary character who observes and reports on the actions of the protagonist.
Narrators can also be third person. This is when the author uses the pronouns “he,” “she,” and “they.” Although not as obvious as in first person cases, third person narrators can also affect the story. Third person narrators can be either omniscient or limited. An omniscient narrator knows everything that has happened and understands all of the implications. A limited narrator only knows as much as a character or characters do. Each of these have different impacts on the story.
Narrators might also be something other than a character, so keep this in mind.
• What type of narrator does the text have?
o First person or third? Protagonist or secondary? Omniscient or limited?
• How do you know?
• What impact does this have on the story?
• How would the story be different with a different type of narrator?
Symbols are persons, places, or things in a narrative that have significance beyond a literal understanding. The craft of storytelling depends on symbols to present ideas and point toward new meanings. Most frequently, a specific object will be used to refer to (or symbolize) a more abstract concept. The repeated appearance of an object suggests a non-literal, or figurative, meaning attached to the object. Symbols are often found in the book’s title, at the beginning and end of the story, within a profound action, or in the name or personality of a character. The life of a novel is perpetuated by generations of readers interpreting and reinterpreting the main symbols. By identifying and understanding symbols, readers can reveal new interpretations of the novel. An example of a symbol would be something like Harry’s scar in the Harry Potter series. While it’s literally the mark left behind from when Voldemort tried to kill him, I’m looking for the symbolic meaning, which could be that it represents his defeat of Voldemort and his role as the Chosen One.
• What are some symbols that you identified in the text? You need to name at least three.
• What do these symbols stand for?
• What impact do they have on the story?
• Why do you think the author chose these particular symbol(s)?
4. Plot Devices
The author crafts a plot structure to create expectations, increase suspense, and develop characters. The pacing of events can make a novel either predictable or riveting. Foreshadowing and flashbacks allow the author to defy the constraints of time. Sometimes an author can confound a simple plot by telling stories within stories. In a conventional work of fiction, the peak of the story’s conflict—the climax—is followed by the resolution, or denouement, in which the effects of that climactic action are presented.
• What plot devices does the author use to make the plot more complex?
• How do these impact the text?
• What do you consider the climax of the story? Why?
• What is the resolution?
Themes are the central, recurring subjects of a novel. As characters grapple with circumstances such as racism, class, or unrequited love, profound questions will arise in the reader’s mind about human life, social pressures, and societal expectations. Classic themes include intellectual freedom versus censorship, the relationship between one’s personal moral code and larger political justice, and spiritual faith versus rational considerations. A novel often reconsiders these age-old debates by presenting them in new contexts or from new points of view.
• What are some themes that you noticed in the novel? You need at least three.
• What are some examples from the text where you see these themes?
• Why does the author include these themes?
The limit of overseeing astounding and sudden events that annoys gatherings and changes in affiliation culture is known as crisis organization. Of late we have had the ability to palpate transboundary crisis, that have impacted accomplices in various structures. For example, the 2011 tsunami of Japan, which meddled with stock system wherever all through the world, especially in the auto business (Crandall, Parnell and Spillan, 2010). This art of overseeing crisis requires aptitudes and data to deal with accomplices' recovery. Crisis organization prepares the person to make aptitudes in an unexpected and troublesome conditions inside the relationship of an emergency response with grit and confirmation. The coordination of the emergency responses to a more broad event that undermines to hurt and squash structures, ability to work enough and profitably. The continuum appraisal of the organizing and modified scene response transforms into an imperative bit of the strategy in a crisis organization outline. Definitive resources available in a crisis in Dominican Republic. According to Crandall, Parnell and Spillan (2014) there are countries and social orders that are known as "crises orchestrated", in light of the way that they have had the ability to plan and support any crisis needing to overcome their weakness. The Dominican Republic isn't the uncommon case, when a crisis rises the gathering and Dominican Civil Defense are the first to respond to the emergency, as individuals available to come back to work. Regardless, only one out of every odd individual is set up to help another person or acknowledge a piece of specialist amid the time spent an emergency crisis. The national emergency and correspondence system, known as the Center for Emergencies Operation, [COE], in its piece of the fundamental office the nation over in a crisis, and responding affiliation has had the ability to make capacity and abilities to enable potential crises and manage the ones that over the long haul to happen. The Center for Emergencies Operation, [COE], is fit the bill for make, overview, execute and plan work power, volunteers and the gathering in reference to the national course of action and organization for emergencies the nation over. The Dominican Civil Defense, are the individual available to come back to work for the scene of a cataclysmic occasion or crisis. This is one of the emergency social occasions, in any occasion, most alluded to in the country as readied pros accessible as needs be for an emergency. The Dominican Civil Defense began their gathering benefits as a social affair of volunteers to the gathering by giving correspondence benefits as radio learner by 1963. Their first specialist support to the gathering was with Hurricane Flora, where they exhibited how they were effective in giving correspondence the country over under an emergency catastrophe as an ocean storm. The Dominican Red Cross empowered them to station their central correspondence inside their center. By, 1966, the Dominican government approved the Law 257, which made the Dominican Civil Defense as an official living being to help emergencies. Thus, transforming into an official state foundation under the umbrella of the Center of Emergencies Operation, COE. In September 22, 2002, the organization approved the Law 147-02 by which the peril organization, transformed into the official emergency authoritative Agency responsible for working up the national emergency and correspondence outline close by its controls. As general norms they consent to guarantee, sort out, share, demonstrate balancing activity and decentralize organizations. Their basic goal is to maintain a strategic distance from or decrease loss of lives and point of confinement property damages of customary natives and government from disastrous occasions or manufactured disasters. The Dominican Civil Defense, is one the living creatures under the umbrella of COE, and moreover the Dominican Red Cross, Energy Conservation Department, Fire Department, Police Department, Dominican Port Authority, Health Department, Environment and Natural Resources Department, Dominican Seismological Institute, National Housing Department, among others, have been seen as an emergency crisis gathering of specialists and specialists neighborhood, national and all around for its work assemble in light of a legitimate concern for those in require and the gathering. Because of the Dominican Civil Defense, their work is made out of 95% of steady arranged volunteers, an official, an officer corps, and departmental chiefs who, according to their educational arranging begin working for the gathering and the benefit of the country. As showed by Treurniet, Van Buul-Besseling and Wolbers (2012) the gathering may be portrayed as a get-together of people living in a comparative zone and having a particular characteristics in like way of being a man. Additionally, in that limit, they will have a place with different social occasions and gatherings, sharing their perception of a honest to goodness dynamic gathering work, towards each other. By 2014, the Dominican Republic realized unprecedented for its history the organizations of 911. As one of the new emergency resource organizations center, its specialists in control needed to educate immensely the masses about the usage and preferences of 911. The correspondence system was enormously used (TV and radio) in the midst of the going with two months previously the establishment of the 911 structure the nation over. Pearson and Mitroff (1993) imparted that there is a need of cooperating with the gathering, since it gives a sentiment being part powerful inside the gathering. Also, they cleared up that the gathering can share their wants, looking over their necessities and goals of the people who are needing support. Amidst crisis, the learning of cooperating formally or coolly with relationship in accomplishing one target of helping another person transforms into a solid direct (James and Gilliland, 2013). In the Dominican Republic, Center for Emergency and Communication Operations, [COE] would be similar in its ability to what FEMA is in the United States. The Dominican Civil Defense is dispersed under the umbrella of the COE. This Center would be part basic of the Crisis Management Team, CMT and the Crisis Management Plan, CMP. COE masterminds steady trainings with national and worldwide associations who are in like manner overseeing emergencies and crisis remembering the ultimate objective to exchange experiences and plan with new systems. Today, the Dominican Civil Defense has ended up being one of the foundations of the Government that has exceptional contrasted with other correspondence sorts out in the country after the Armed Forces. They have a correspondence structure in the UHF band or ''ultra-high repeat" starting late presented, and a fleet system is national in scope, despite standard phones. Starting at now, the Dominican Civil Defense has a radio station, which is the soul of the association in crisis and emergencies that work 24 hours consistently and the 365 days of the year (Dominican Civil Defense, 2014).>GET ANSWER