Analyze one or two cyber vulnerabilities or threats that you find most dangerous for the national security of the United States and key issues in tackling them.
ontributing alone more 50% reported malaria cases from SEA followed by Myanmar (24%) and Indonesia (22%). Diagnosis Prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical to the effective management of malaria. Malaria diagnosis involves identifying malaria parasites or antigens/products in patient blood. Various diagnostic methods for malaria parasite identification includes clinical diagnosis, microscopy, QBC method, rapid diagnostic test kits, serological test, molecular methods like PCR, flow cytometry, LAMP, microarray, mass spectrometry. Treatments AS+SP, is recommended for all uncomplicated Pf case in the county except North eastern (NE) states. In NE states, the combination of Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is recommended). Drug resistance According to WHO, resistance to antimalarial drugs can be defined as ‘the ability of a parasite strain to survive and/or to multiply despite the administration and absorption of a drug given in doses equal to, or higher than, those usually recommended, but within the limits of tolerance of the subject’ (WHO). Chloroquine CQ resistance is associated with a decrease accumulation of CQ concentration in the food vacuole of parasites, which is the site of action for C (Fidock et al., 2000.). The substitution of lysine to threonine (K76T) at codon 76 of the pfcrt gene is associated with in vivo and in vitro CQ resistance in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia (Anvikar et al., 2012; Garcia et al., 2004; Ojurongbe. et al., 2007). Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine(SP) SDX and PYR is inhibiting to the DHPS and DHFR enzymes, respectively, specific point mutations in Pfdhps & Pfdhfr gene encoding these enzymes lead to a lower binding affinity for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine drugs. High frequency of mutations in codon S108N followed by codon C59R and double mutant (S108N+C59R) genotypes are prevalent in India (Mishra et al. 2012). Apart from this, mutations at codon 51 and 164 are also responsible for increasing the tolerance of parasite towards the drug (Lumb et al. 2009). Pf showed variable levels of resistant to sulphdoxine wit>GET ANSWER