Depression Therapy

Introduction

Depression is a wide and heterogeneous diagnosis. Central to the subject is a depressed mood and loss of pleasure in many activities. Severity of this disorder is gauged by the extent of functional impairment and the number of symptoms. The treatment of depression normally includes a combination of talking therapies, medicine, and self-help (Callahan et al., 2005). The mode of treatment is dependent on the depression someone is suffering from. For instance, mild depression requires assistance of self-help groups, mild to moderate depression would need to administration of therapies, and moderate to severe depression is best treated with antidepressants (medication) and a combination of therapy. Talking therapies and assistance from self-help groups may lead to behavioral change.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is, perchance, one of the most and frequently used psychotherapeutic alignments, with adequate research supporting its adaptability and effectiveness in the clinical practice. As the name suggests, CBT integrates the techniques and rationale from both behavioral and cognitive therapies (Dobson, 1989). For instance, cognitive therapy pursues to alter behavior through challenging maladaptive opinions, while behavioral therapy uses more direct and complimentary approaches (Dobson, 1989). Though the efficiency of CBT has been strongly established in treating various disorders or problems, its utility and history has a deep rooting in the treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms (Dobson, 1989). Aaron Beck, who is documented as the father of CBT, used the model in helping depressed patients in recognizing their faulty thoughts which negatively affected their behavior.

In contrary to other psychotherapy forms, CBT purposes to quickly determine maladaptive behavior or thoughts without too deeply delving in the manner they occur. Therefore, efficient progressions of therapy might be long or short depending on the individual’s specific needs. CBT assists people in dealing with their difficult situations by changing their patterns of thinking, emotional response, and behaviors (Dobson, 1989). Putting this into consideration, this paper reviews some literature in which CBT has been used as a therapy in addressing depression related problems. This study argues that CBT is effective in treating depression problems than any other psychotherapeutic treatment.

Dobson, K.S. (1989). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(3), 414-419.

The effectiveness and efficiency of CBT for depression has been comprehensively studied, and the results are indicative of its superiority as compared to other alternatives. Dobson (1989) carried a meta-analysis of 28 meticulous treatment studies on unipolar depression. Based on the Beck Depression Inventory scores of patients, CBT on depression was more superior as compared to pharmacotherapy behavior therapy among others. From the analysis of the comparative studies, Dobson (1989) found out that CBT for depression was more effective in spite of the depression’s severity as compared to the pharmacotherapy. However, some studies showed that a combination of BBT and pharmacotherapy was more effective in addressing the depression problem. Patients that were assigned to CBT showed less likelihood of relapse or seeking further treatment than responders of pharmacotherapy.

Callahan C., M., Kroenke, M., D., Steve, M., D., Counsell. S., R., Hendrie,H., C., and Perkins, A., J. (2005). Treatment of Depression Improves Physical Functioning in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53(3), 367-373.

This article gives a description of the impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on the physical functioning of depressed old adults. A randomized trial was conducted on 1801 adults of 60 years and above with depressions, and were assigned to two depression treatment situations: CBT collaborative care and the normal care. Patients assigned to the normal care had access to all available health services including medication and other forms of psychotherapy apart from CBT. The ones assigned to CBT had also an access to a depression care professional who synchronized care for a period of twelve months. The measurement instruments of daily living were used in assessing the physical functioning among the study participants. Eventually, both groups indicated enhanced physical functioning with low depression symptoms, but the physical functioning was significantly high in patients assigned to CBT than those of the normal care. After the twelve months period, generally CBT patients showed more improvements and their health were less likely to be rated as fair or poor than normal care patients.

Unutzer J., Caton, W., & Callaham, C., M. (2002). Collaborative-Care Management of Late-Life Depression in the Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2836-2845.

In this qualitative article, a total of 1801 participants were involved in a randomized controlled study. The participants were 60 years and above from 18 different clinics offering primary care in 5 states. Two modes of treatments were used: CBT based and the normal care. The time span for the treatment was 12 months. At the end of the study, it was evident that 45% of CBT patients showed a 50% and above reduction in depression symptoms compared to the 19% of the normal care group. Apart from the greater reduction in depression, there was more satisfaction, less functional impairment, and higher quality life in CBT base patients than the normal plan patients.

 

Conclusion

Depression is a disorder that needs a treatment plan focused in changing the behavior of the victim, and is effectively achieved by CBT. This treatment strategy has been found to treat many disorders, but it is more effective in depression and anxiety related problems. From the literature analysis presented, CBT is acts better than other related treatment plans including pharmacotherapy.

 

References

Callahan C., M., Kroenke, M., D., Steve, M., D., Counsell., S., R., Hendrie,H., C., and Perkins, A., J. (2005). Treatment of Depression Improves Physical Functioning in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53(3), 367-373.

Dobson, K.S. (1989). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(3), 414-419.

Unutzer J., Caton, W., & Callaham, C., M. (2002). Collaborative-Care Management of Late-Life Depression in the Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2836-2845.

ACED ESSAYS