Post an explanation of a threat to internal validity and a threat to external validity in quantitative research. Next, explain a strategy to mitigate each of these threats. Then, identify a potential ethical issue in quantitative research and explain how it might influence design decisions. Finally, explain what it means for a research topic to be amenable to scientific study using a quantitative approach.
ssociates had agreed to license Baer’s system to Magnavox, which began selling the system as the Odyssey, and it was able to sell 130,000 units in the summer of 1972. Unlike Tennis for Two, the Odyssey was more accessible to everyone in America and offered a sense of immersion, having been said to make the TV “an extension of you, the player.” Being the first home console in history, the Odyssey did have its flaws, such as a lack of games to play, which eventually led to slower sales, only selling 200,000 more units combined over the next three years. However, it was able to continue the domino effect that Tennis for Two had started. By proving that there was indeed a market in videogames, more and more people wanted a chance to strike gold, as Baer and his team had come close to. Evidently, two men by the names of Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney started work on their company named “Atari”, which was Japanese for “check” as used in a game of Chess. After the release of their first, and America’s first, arcade cabinet, Computer Atmaca 4 Space, which only sold 1500 units nationwide as it was hailed as too difficult and boring, the duo stayed determined and hired Al Alcorn to program games. As a test of his skill, Bushnell informed Alcorn that he was under a contract with General Electric to create a table-tennis game, similar to the one seen on the Odyssey. While there was no actual contract, Alcorn was dedicated to programming a great game, and in only 4 months time he finished what he titled PONG, only because the name Ping-Pong was copyrighted. Both Bushnell and Dabney were impressed with the final product and decided to place the cabinet in a local shop in Sunnyvale, California. What had started as an initiation test was looking to be a big hit, as the quarter box was constantly being filled by the nearby children. Atari saw the opportunity, and when they decided to sell the arcade cabinet to retailers worldwide, the impact on the industry would be profound. After being released in 1972, Atari’s PONG quickly reached success all across the nation, an achievement that was more rewarding when taken account that it was the first videogame to do so. However, as mentioned before, while “Pong consistently earned four times more revenue than other coin-operated machines [it was] estimated that the game earned US$35–40 per day, which was nothing ever seen before in the coin-operated entertainment industry at the time” (http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/pong.htm 2), it was it’s impact, rather it’s spark, on the industry that truly gave the game it’s relevance. With PONG’s unprecedented success, many things happened in response. For one, it meant only more great news for Atari, as their newfound success with PONG in the arcade market prompted them to introduce their home console, the Atari 2600, in 1974. While the only worthwhile game available on the 2600 was Atmaca 5 PONG, it became the most popular console of the year in 1975, amassing $40,000,000 in sales. Just like PONG did for the arcade market, the Atari 2600 made home consoles a staple in many homes across America, making Atari the king of the videogame industry at the time. With the fame and wealth that came with Atari’s success, many companies turned their eye to this new industry that seemed to have cropped up out of nowhere. Companies like Mattel and, even Purina, were making quick and cheap video games to advertise their products, as everyone was playing them now. While they weren’t as popular as PONG or some other of the other Atari titles, the amount of games and consoles being created was increasing exponentially. For another seven years until 1982, Atari’s reign over the kingdom that was the videogame ind>GET ANSWER