Assessing the operational definition(s), validity and reliability of the measures used in one of the research studies you have consulted for your research proposal. Then, you will attempt to produce operational definitions for the variables in your hypotheses and comment on the validity and reliability of these measures.
Select one of the research articles you have reviewed for your proposal. Be certain the article you select reports the results of a quantitative study. Read through the paper, paying close attention to the variables included in the research.
1) List the hypotheses tested in the research article:
2) Select ONE of these hypotheses and list the variables included.
3) For each variable:
a. describe in detail how each was operationalized (in other words, how exactly did the researcher choose to measure this variable)?
b. discuss the validity of the measure. Remember, validity refers to the accuracy of the measurement (does it measure what we think it measures). Does the author mention tests for validity? If so, summarize their comments. Do you have thoughts on the validity of the measure? Does it appear to measure what it intends to measure (face validity)?
c. discuss the reliability of the measure. Remember, reliability refers to the way that the research instrument is able to yield the same results in repeated tests. It refers to the consistency of the measure, and asks whether other researchers would get the same results under the same conditions. Does the author mention tests for reliability? If so, summarize their comments. Do you have thoughts on the reliability of the measure? Can you think of any reasons this measure might produce different results at a different time?
4) Write your research question(s) here, then develop at least three hypotheses that relate to your research question(s). Your hypotheses should make a prediction about the relationship of each of your independent variables as you expect them to predict the dependent variable.
5) List all of the variables included in your hypotheses. Identify whether the variable is dependent or independent
6) For each variable
a. Describe in detail how each will be operationalized. In other words how exactly do you plan to measure this variable? Include the level of measurement for this variable.
representation of the principal theme. From the very beginning Hamlet reflects a youthful idolization of death, living life as a journey toward death (Engel, 2002, p.10); although he is afraid of the Ghost, he tries to get in touch with him. Initially Hamlet is anxious about death, because he does not know what awaits him after death. Hamlet reflects his anxiety in his famous soliloquy To be or not to be, where he demonstrates the controversy of the issue of death. As he claims, But that the dread of something after death, / The undiscovered country from whose bourne / No traveler returns, puzzles the will / And makes us rather bear those ills we have / Than to fly to others we know not of (Shakespeare, 1985 3.1.86-90). However, as Hamlet collides with cruelty, murders, injustice and deaths, he seems to form a certain unconcern towards death. In his search of revenge, Hamlet thinks much about death and afterlife. But these attempts to revenge for his father are only a prerequisite to Hamlet’s thoughts of committing suicide. This obsession with death gradually drives him mad; William Shakespeare demonstrates this obsession with implicit mockery. For instance, when Hamlet kills Ophelia’s father, he is not able to remember, where he hides his body; instead he starts to madly speak about the worms that eat a dead body. Shakespeare demonstrates that even Hamlet’s appearance shows his obsession with death; he wears black clothes and looks depressed. In the graveyard scene Shakespeare intensifies Hamlet’s preoccupation with death, revealing Hamlet’s gloomy thoughts. As he claims, No, faith, not a jot; but to follow him thither with modesty enough and likelihood to lead it; as thus: Alexander died, Alexander was buried, Alexander returned into dust; the dust is earth (Shakespeare, 1985 5.1.201-206). In fact, the image of the grave is shown several times throughout the play to reveal the character’s attitude towards death. With the exception of Hamlet, all characters demonstrate fear and pity at the sight of the grave that they associate with death. As Hamlet constantly thinks of death, he does not value his own life, as well as other people’s lives. As a result, Hamlet appears to be also responsible for the death of Ophelia, Claudius, Polonius, Guildenstern and Rosencrantz. Thus, Hamlet’s obsession transforms him from a miserable youth into a cruel murderer. However, contrary to other characters’ deaths that are portrayed with a certain degree of irony, Hamlet’s death is depicted in more serious terms. From the very beginning of Shakespeare’s play each death seems to be blackened and is soon forgotten by other characters. For instance, Hamlet demonstrates that his father’s death is already neglected by people, although King Hamlet died only a couple of months ago. When Horatio claims, My lord, I came to see your father’s funeral, Hamlet responds: I prithee, do not mock me, fellow student. I think it was to see my mother’s wedding (Shakespeare, 1985 1.2.183-185). Such an ironic viewpoint reveals that even the most generous people are forgotten. The death of Polonius is also ignored by the principal characters; Ophelia and Laertes are too preoccupied with their emotions and feelings to remember their father, and Hamlet who accidentally kills Polonius expresses only some sympathetic words: Thou wretched, rash, intruding fool, farewell (Shakespeare, 1985 3.4.38). Ophelia’s death is described in even more ironical portrayal, as the dramatist presupposes that her death is a result of suicide and asks: Is she to be buried in Christian burial, when she wilfully seeks her own salvation? (Shakespeare, 1985 3.4.38). Similar to Ophelia’s death, the deaths of Gertrude, Claudius, Guildenstern and Rosencrantz are able to arouse only sympathy in readers. In this regard, Hamlet’s death stands out against a background of other deaths; it evokes respect and powerful emotions towards the character. Although Hamlet expresses irony to death throughout the play, his death is a tragedy for those who knew him. As Horatio claims, Now cracks a noble heart. / Goodnight sweet prince. And a flight of angels sing thee to thy rest (Shakespeare, 1985 5.2.397-398). Hamlet’s death is the tragedy for the whole country, because it has lost its noble king and can hardly find another great person. Fortinbras considers that For he was likely, had he been put upon, to have proved most royal Speak loudly for him (>GET ANSWER