Diplomacy and war
1) 1) Explain the concepts of linguistic intractability and radical disagreement. How does this analysis and approach differ from more traditional conflict resolution approaches? What are some of the key issues involved, such as concept of justice? How does this approach impact negotiation strategies and the possibility of conflict resolution? Use examples where appropriate.
See Ramsbotham, Contemporary Conflict Resolution, chapter 18
See also Hall Gardner, IR Theory, Historical Analogy and Major Power War, Chapter 5.
Section B Choose 2 questions out of 3. No Notes
2) 2) Both Gene Sharp and Troy Davis have developed concepts of “radical democracy” and “democracy engineering” that seek to transform dictatorships to democracies. Outline either the views of Sharp or those of Davis, or both, if possible. What do you see as the strengths of the arguments? What are the weaknesses? Use examples where relevant.
Troy Davis, Chapter 7, in Gardner and Kobtzeff, The Ashgate Research Companion to War
See also Hall Gardner, in Gardner and Kobtzeff, The Ashgate Research Companion to War, pages 7 to 11.
3) 3) Hall Gardner’s World War Trump makes the argument for the implementation of “regional peace and development communities” involving concepts of “joint sovereignty.” This stems from the article of Chester Crocker, The Place of Grand Strategy, Statecraft and Power in Conflict Management. What is a regional peace and development community? How does it involve “joint sovereignty”? And are such communities feasible? How do such communities rely upon global strategy and a regional and global “equilibrium” of power relationships between major and regional powers?
4) 4) Pick any chapter in Ramsbotham, Contemporary Conflict Resolution that you did not use to prepare for a class discussion (and not including Chapter 18 on linguistic intractability). What are the main points? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the chapter?
As part of maintaining the cultural norms and values of the previous generations, the institution of marriage and the role of family are seen as an essential part of their identity. As such the practice of arranged marriage, partly to ensure that these values are maintained in a ‘controlled’ sense is common. In some South Asian families, cousin-marriages are also the norm. Young British South Asian Muslims are finding themselves torn between traditional values of arranged marriage and western concepts of relationships resulting in intergenerational conflict and re-evaluation of certain aspects of their cultural identity, these conflicting ideologies were to give rise to the phenomenon of ‘forced marriages’, where parents would manipulate their offspring with emotional and physical coercion to achieve their desired outcome of a culturally befitting union, it must be stressed however that ‘forced marriage is not a religious issue but a cultural one.. Samad (2004p.20-21) looks at how South Asian British Muslim females have adopted textual Islam to contest traditional cultural approaches to arranged marriages, a minority rejected the practice however most manipulated it to suit their now more western values of choice but with their parents cultural approval. Samad also looked at how The South Asian Muslim women contested their parent’s pressure of wearing traditional ‘Shalwar Kameez’ in favour of western modest clothing, again aligning themselves with British values and customs. Ansari’s(2002p.15-16.) report supports these finding but further adds to it the adoption of the ‘hijab’ by Muslim women to empower them and ‘symbolized this assertion of female Muslim identity’. However the western view of ‘hijabs’ as being a form of oppression and ignorance contradict the notion of empowerment and a positive identity, creating a further rift in the process of assimilation of Muslims in Britain. In South Asian communities premarital relationships and especially premarital sex is frowned upon and discouraged. Young Muslims are finding themselves caught between a secular society that has a liberal view on sexual relationships and a traditional community which views sex as taboo, both failing to provide appropriate support therefore impacting negatively on their identity. Alyas karmani (2012) provides a detailed analysis of how cultural constraints on sex and relationships affect south Asian males which in turn lead to deviant sexual behaviour which cannot be attributed to either culture. Inappropriate sexual ‘relationships’ with young white girls who are often vulnerable, termed as ‘grooming’ is the new moral panic of British society. Medias over amplification >GET ANSWER