“Do Rules Define Morality?”


Questions for “Do Rules Define Morality?”

  1. Kant claimed that we experience morality as a conflict, our moral duty pulls us in one direction, while our bodily desires (emotions, feelings, sympathies, inclinations) pull us in another. But humans are able to rise above their bodily desires and self-interest they are able to act according to ______________.
  2. For Kant moral right and wrong do not depend on the exterior consequences of our actions or on achieving happiness. Instead, right and wrong depend on the interior choices of reason. Moral goodness lies _____________, in our will: the ability of our reason to choose for itself. “It is impossible to think of anything in the universe, or even beyond it, that is good without qualification except a ______________. A good will is not good because of the actions it carries out or the effects it brings about. Nor does goodness depend on its ability to achieve certain results. A good will is good simply in virtue of its willing. That is, its goodness lies in itself.”
  3. For Kant, to act according to reason is to act as we believe all humans should act. It is to follow rules we believe it is everyone’s _____________ to follow. Kant laid out his ideas on ethics in a short book, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Here he introduces some new terms. A maxim he says is a rule that one person follows. A universal law is a rule that applies to everyone. Kant summarizes his ethics in a principle he calls _____________________________.
  4. But if Kant’s categorical rule is like the golden rule, then what makes the categorical imperative different or special? What was new about Kant’s categorical imperative is actually in essence only that he says that we don’t need a superhuman authority to find morality. We just need our own reason. Our reason _____________________________.
  5. In Kant, then, the moral life is based on the same principles everyone else should live by. Reason requires _____________. Consistency means living by the same rules we think others should follow.
  6. The strength of Kantian ethics appeals to our intuitions that most well brought up people in our culture have, and these include the notion that the heart of immorality typically is to treat yourself as an _____________. To do something that you wouldn’t want other people to do.
  7. Kant’s 2 versions of the categorical imperative sound very different, yet they are closely connected to the same social ideal from the Enlightenment. This is the idea that we all belong to a community of ____ and ____ persons.
  8. Indeed, Kant’s ethical ideas have been adapted and modified by later philosophers. But Kant did not die young. Starting in his mid-50s he turned out books which set new directions for virtually every branch of philosophy. In the closing passing from the Critique of Practical Reason, the young admirer of Newton, and the much older ethicist, seemed to speak together: “Two things move the mind with ever increasing admiration and awe the more often and more steadily we reflect on them: the ______________________________above and the ____________________________ within.”

Sample Solution