1. Describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Simvastatin. Describe the main therapeutic indications for Simvastatin and key contraindications, identifying any relevant considerations for Moira? (400 words) (20%)
2. Identify 2 commonly used forms of glucosamine and briefly explain how they differ. Which form and what dose will you recommend for Moira going forward? Are there any safety considerations for Moira? Justify your choice of form and dose using research and appropriate databases. (400 words) (20%)
3. Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) is a herb widely believed to help alleviate peri-menopausal symptoms.
a)What are understood to be the mechanisms of action of Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and how strong is the evidence for peri-menopausal relief?
b)Evaluate the suitability of this herb for Moira as a potential alternative to HRT?
c) Briefly explain the legislation governing the sale of this herb?
Moira wants your advice regarding HRT. Briefly outline the key pros and cons for Moira with reference to research. If Moira decides to proceed with HRT, identify any relevant drug nutrient interactions to consider and whether HRT would be compatible with Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa.) (400 words) (20%)
As indicated by Dailymail.co.uk (2008), "Avivah Wittenbery-Cox a co-creator of Why Women Mean Business and CEO of 20-First sex consultancy says that, so much discussion about the discriminatory constraint doesn't help take care of the genuine issues confronting the female workforce. The expression infers that we ladies ascend and up through the positions with no inconvenience by any means, until all of a sudden we discover our way is blocked." She says that the administration approach in Britain doesn't bolster as much double pay couples and despite the fact that numerous organizations take ladies through projects in authority preparing and give additional help to female workers as they endeavor to make the best decision; absence of government bolster is a prevention. As indicated by Avivah, there is an approach by most best organizations to recognize high performing representatives at 30 years old and 35 and it is at the point where most ladies are beginning their families or are having youthful youngsters and are on maternity leave, or experience restless evenings in view of the youthful kids, while their men associates are grinding away and get the advancements considerably quicker. Ladies as indicated by Avivah need to exceed expectations in what they do as a spouse, little girl, mother, sweetheart, volunteer and expert vocations and it doesn't mean they need the best positions. As indicated by Wells (1997) there has been an expansion in ladies having unhitched males and post graduate degrees particularly in business administration and law at the postgraduate level which are thought to be the key certifications required for senior administration positions. Mallon and Catherine (1999), feature that wedded ladies without youngsters, unmarried or separated from ladies will probably be in senior administration grades and dissimilar to their male partners, they take long to build up their vocations. In their examination, the compelling impact on profession advancement for ladies needed to do with association culture particularly working for extend periods of time, esteem, strategy identified with childcare and family, and rehearse and sexual segregation. "A prominent finding was that, notwithstanding the abnormal state of capabilities held, 35 for each penny of ladies ascribed their (apparent) ease back profession movement to their own absence of applicable preparing and broadness of aptitude and a comparable number believed that extra preparing was the appropriate response. Absence of fearlessness was portrayed by one lady as a: ``powerful obstruction with numerous unobtrusive impacts''. (Mallon and Catherine 1999) and it is frequently refered to as a reason for ladies' under-portrayal at senior levels (Inlogov 1989). Research discoveries affirm that the numerous ladies rejected for higher administration positions are as capable as the men joining the workforce (White, 1992) Even however ladies are currently graduating in higher numbers than men from instructive foundations (Fagenson and Jackson, 1994), "the poor portrayal of ladies at senior administration level proceeds with" (Hind and Baruch, 1997, p. 276). Research seems to recommend that unreasonable impediments, instead of an absence of capabilities, constrain ladies' headway into the upper levels of administration (Lyness and Thompson, 2000). Unfair limitation in Africa As per un.org/africarenewal on an article composed by Ernest Harsch (2006), "the race of Ms. Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf as the new leader of Liberia remains as a twofold historic point. The occasion flagged a vital advance in the West African country's progress to peace following 14 long periods of common war; it additionally denoted the first occasion when that a lady was chosen to the most astounding political office anyplace in Africa." She could break the unfair limitation by being the main lady among 22 presidential hopefuls. As indicated by africa-investor.com, splitting the discriminatory constraint (2008), as of not long ago, "the Nigerian economy was controlled by a lady; South Africa has a female Vice President; and Kenyans praise their own particular female Nobel-prize-winning researcher." Despite ladies breaking the unattainable rank, "there are as yet significant abberations between the genders in the working environment. UNICEF gauges there are six million a bigger number of ladies on the planet than men, performing 66% of the work as an end-result of just 11% of the world's pay. However there are signs that the managing an account industry in Africa - generally a male-ruled bastion - is starting to reflect not just the make-up of saving money somewhere else on the planet, yet in addition the make-up of the social orders it works with and depends on for its business. Ladies are controlling bigger measures of cash than at some other time, and are starting to rise up out of behind the aggregate personality of numerous generally male-commanded situations to wind up pioneers, experts and business visionaries. While South Africa's dynamic economy offers ladies energizing work openings with quickly developing, incredibly famous firms, the way to the best has been twice as hard. Racial mistreatment amid the politically-sanctioned racial segregation period has exacerbated ladies' endeavors to break into business when all is said in done, bringing about what Ruwaida Kassim, CEO of the Institute of Retirement Funds (IRF), alludes to as a racially-tinted discriminatory constraint." (africa-investor.com 2008) "Ladies in South Africa's money related part have been doubly minimized as a side-effect of segregation, yet we have advanced relentlessly," she says. She calls attention to that the present annuity support adjudicator is a lady, and that she, at just 27, is heading up a body that assumes a fundamental part in directing an industry that contributes more than ZAR 10 trillion (US $1.24tr) toward the South African economy. Numerous ladies likewise have the sort of life encounter that makes them in a perfect world suited to the human parts of monetary administrations, especially when disclosing or showcasing items to other ladies. Past that, the large number of parts ladies wind up performing - mother, sister, spouse, vocation lady, homemaker - grows finely-tuned enthusiastic knowledge that plays further bolstering their good fortune inside the social flow of a working environment regardless of their identity managing, from the meeting room to the bottle." (africa-investor.com, 2008) In less created nations there are couple of ladies with administration aptitudes, and this makes a boundary to development. Also, ladies are significantly more prone to be removed from school right on time by their folks with the goal that they contribute financially and really to home life, and labor weights which additionally disturb profession prospects." (africa-investor.com, 2008) As indicated by ILO's Global Employment Trends (2003), "social and social states of mind towards what constitutes "male" or "female" occupations result in word related isolation, in spite of the fact that the degree of the issue shifts from nation to nation, and from occupation to work. Ladies are for the most part packed in the "feminized" callings, for example, nursing and instructing (flat word related isolation), where in the meantime they stay in bring down employment classifications than men (vertical word related isolation). In any case, ladies keep on making little advances into non-customary fields, for example, law, data and correspondence innovation (ICT) and software engineering, and building, and there is prove that businesses are starting to advance ladies all the more efficiently and to present family-accommodating strategies so as to hold them. In any case, ladies who pick non-conventional employments can confront extraordinary imperatives in the work environment, not slightest of which are disconnection, restricted access to tutoring and female good examples, and lewd behavior." In South Africa, while "ladies are picking up acknowledgment to casually enter the meeting rooms, the way of life of long working hours and requesting work prerequisites, are demoralizing them from really holding seats there." (Babita 2006) It can be seen that biased based impediment isn't only a one nation ladies' concern yet in Africa and globally not just in one vocation field e.g. promoting, fund, innovation yet in larger part of professions if not all. Unattainable rank in Kenya In an online article composed by Muthoni Thang'wa (2006), "Insights in Kenya demonstrate that more young ladies select in school every year than any time in recent memory because of the presentation of free essential instruction in 2003." But it was noticed that the enrolment of young ladies just expanded in a few locales in the wake of presenting free training in grade schools outlining that numerous guardians who didn't see the need of teaching the young lady kid needed to sit tight for the presentation of free essential training. Furthermore, most societies would offer their little girls at 12 years old years nonetheless, numerous associations that cook for ladies have endeavored to stop these traditions by instructing the guardians and society and shielding young ladies who attempt to be offered before and give them training. Nonetheless, there is a ton yet to be done since a few societies have clutched these traditions. As indicated by Muthoni (2006), "Ms Agnes Pareiyo of Tasaro Girls Rescue Center in Narok runs a middle that fills in as an asylum for mostly Maasai young ladies who decline to experience female circumcision and decide on an elective soul changing experience." The inside serves to exhortation, accommodate and teach guardians and their little girls on different ways these transitional experiences should be possible while staying away from these destructive culture of young lady's circumcision. Ms. Agnes was perceived by the UN for her endeavors. That the objective of the inside is to accommodate guardians and their little girls after the elective ceremonies and giving them a training says a lot of young ladies with respect to the social transitional experiences. Previous Tetu MP Professor Wangari Maathai, the Nobel Laureate, added to practical improvement, majority rules system and peace and won the Nobel peace prize in 2004. Muthoni (2006) says that Professor Wangari through the Green Belt Movement could assemble provincial ladies to battle deforestation, in this manner reestablishing the primary wellspring of fuel, as well as avoiding soil disintegration and ensuring our streams a lakes which are a wellspring of life to man. Educator Olive Mugenda smashed an unreasonable impediment when she turned into the main female bad habit chancellor to serve Kenyatta University which is one of Kenya's six state funded colleges. As per deloitte.com (20>GET ANSWER