What is the most effective therapeutic technique for reducing shame in patients with Alcohol Use Disorder?
allegedly reflect a fundamental difference in views about the role of women in society. But while such views exist, the evidence indicates that most Canadians do not view immigrant groups as this kind of symbolic threat to gender equality. Most Canadians support diversity in migration and are willing to tolerate divergent cultural beliefs and practices (Soroka & Roberton, 2010). A study of how Quebec Francophones responded to a woman wearing a hijab or niqab found that there was not a significantly different conception of symbolic threat when compared with her in Western clothing (El-Geledi & Bourhis, 2012). This suggests that in Canada the public perception that immigrant groups have different attitudes about gender equality does not translate into reactions against diverse cultural practices. Minority immigrants themselves perceive that they have significant cultural differences with the majority of Canadians, but these differences seem to be tempered somewhat with regards to gender issues. A greater majority of Canadian Muslims support the view that immigrant groups should be free to maintain their religious and cultural practices than the plurality of Canadians who also support this position (Soroka & Roberton, 2010). Given the prominence of the niqab debate, this likely translates into support for the right to wear such veils regardless of the symbolic threat it may pose to feminist values. But research has also indicated that there is considerable variation concerning the status of women among people around the world who are perceived to live in patriarchal societies. This research has shown, for example, that patriarchal views are held more strongly in Muslim societies in Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Egypt while such views are held less strongly in Iran, Turkey, and Kazakhstan (Reitz, Phan, & Banerjee, 2015). Muslims are not a monolithic global religious group but have considerable variation across countries and generational cohorts. Migrants represent their own group which may or may not share the patriarchal values of the society they come from. While minorities themselves are supportive of retaining their cultural and religious practices, this does not mean that they hold strongly patriarchal views. Immigrant groups seem to have a smaller attachment to patriarchal views concerning family obligation and labour market participation, however, as members of these groups general adopt Canadian norms in these regards. Research does show there is greater gender inequality in labour force participation among patriarchal religious immigrant groups such as Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs relative to mainstream Canadians, and this inequality is only partially conditioned by the presence of young children (Reitz, Phan, & Banerjee, 2015). Women of all demographics are more likely to leave the workforce because of family obligations. Women belonging to religious immigrant groups are less likely to work regardless of such obligations. Over time, however, this pattern fades until members of these immigrant groups are participating in the labour market to an extent comparable to other Canadian women (Reitz, Phan, & Banerjee, 2015). Economic and social attitudes towards the status of women are therefore less significant than cultural or religious practices. Other immigrant groups are even more likely to have high rates of labour market participation. Historically, a large proportion of migrant workers from Afro-Caribbean and Asian countries to Canada have been women (Castles, de Haas, & Miller, 2013). These women often fill positions in the labour market that are otherwise undesirable, including repetitive factory work, lower-skilled personal care work, and>GET ANSWER