a. What types of projects require collaboration?

b. What are four primary attributes of an effective writing team? Provide an example for each.

C: Internet Source Distortion/Misrepresentation From media, personal experience, or the Internet, identify an example of each of the following sources of distortion (faulty causal and/or statistical inference) for the following:

a. A study with questionable sponsorship or motives

b. Reliance on insufficient evidence/hasty generalization

c. Unbalanced or biased presentation

d. Unexamined assumptions

e. Faulty causal reasoning

he conditions for straightforward discourse coding are: Ø The normal or mean of the unearthly bending (SD) must be not exactly or equivalent to 1dB. Ø There must be no exception outlines having a phantom twisting more noteworthy than 4dB. Ø The quantity of exception outlines between 2 to 4dB must be under 2%. These three conditions are required to assess the execution of a quantizer. At a given piece rate, a streamlining procedure must be completed to get better execution i.e., tolerating a substantial normal otherworldly twisting for a couple of exceptions. In the plan of a vector quantizer as opposed to utilizing the mean squared blunder (MSE) separate measure the weighted LSF remove estimation is utilized. This is done to put accentuation on the low recurrence LSFs and on the LSFs with higher power range. The weights utilized can be of two kinds they are: static or dynamic [54]. Ø Fixed or Static weights : These are utilized to put accentuation on the low recurrence LSFs with a specific end goal to represent the affectability of human ear for low and high recurrence LSFs. Ø Varying or Dynamic weights : These are utilized to put accentuation on the LSFs with high power range. There exist various vector quantization procedures every one is having its own particular points of interest and impediments. Every procedure is produced to diminish the parameters like otherworldly contortion, computational intricacy and memory necessities. The vector quantization strategies that exist are the Split Vector Quantization (SVQ) system, Multistage Vector Quantization (MSVQ) strategy, Split-Multistage Vector Quantization (S-MSVQ) procedure and Switched Split Vector Quantization (SSVQ) method. As attractiveness and cost of an item relies upon the unpredictability and memory prerequisites, the execution of the vector quantization methods is estimated as far as ghostly mutilation in decibels, computational many-sided quality in kilo flops per edge and memory necessities in glides. The execution of a vector quantization strategy primarily relies upon how productively the codebook is created. The codebook can be produced effectively utilizing a vast preparing set and utilizing more number of bits for codebook age. The objective associated with the plan of every vector quantization method is to make the strategy to utilize more number of preparing vectors and less number of bits for codebook age there by the phantom contortion, computational unpredictability and memory necessities can be lessened. It has been watched that as the quantity of bits utilized for codebook age diminishes the computational unpredictability and memory prerequisites diminishes however the phantom mutilation expands, this expansion in otherworldly twisting can be decreased by expanding the quantity of preparing vectors utilized for codebook age [62-71]. The square chart of an Unconstrained Vector Quantizer (UVQ) is appeared in Fig 4.4. Unconstrained Vector Quantization method is the most terrible vector quantization procedure utilized for accomplishing least twisting at a given piece rate and measurement. In LPC-10 the request of the channel picked is 10 thus the length of each LSF vector will be 10. In Unconstrained Vector Quantization strategy the quantization is done on vectors of full length i.e., utilizing 10 tests of a LSF vector. From Fig 4.4 S1, S2, S3......Sn are the information LSF vectors to be quantized utilizing the Unconstrained Vector Quantizer. The principle preferred standpoint of this vector quantization method is that it is relied upon to give most minimal quantization mutilation at a given piece rate as the relationship that exists between the examples of a vector is safeguarded. In any case, the hindrance with this quantization system is that as vectors of full length are utilized, at higher piece rates the computational multifaceted nature and memory necessities increments in an exponential way making it unreasonable for applications requiring higher piece rates. Another issue with this quantization method is that at higher piece rates the measure of the codebook will be vast and the age of the codebook for this sort of quantization procedure will be troublesome on universally useful PCs as the memory accessible with them is restricted. So the quantity of preparing vectors utilized for codebook age must be restricted in number or the length of every vector must be diminished. By and by on broadly useful PCs the codebook can't be produced even with preparing vectors not as much as the quantity of codeword's in a codebook at higher piece rates. Be that as it may, the quantity of preparing vectors required to produce the codebook must be extensive than the quantity of codeword's in a codebook generally there will be excessively finished fitting of the preparation set [54]. The computational intricacy and memory necessities of a b bit, n dimensional vector quantizer are ascertained as takes after [54]: Ø To ascertain the mean square mistake (MSE) between two vectors of n measurement, n subtractions, n augmentations and n-1 increases are required. So an aggregate of 3n-1 flops are required. Ø To look through a codebook of 2b code vectors, (3n-1)2b failures are required notwithstanding the base twisting hunt requiring 2b-1 flops. Ø So the quantity of calculations made by a b bit, n dimensional vector quantizer is Add up to multifaceted nature = (3n-1)2b + 2b-1 = 3n2b-1 flops for each vector. (4.24) In the registering the multifaceted nature every expansion, increase and correlation is considered as one skimming point task. So a b bit n dimensional vector quantizer requires a codebook of 2b code vectors, it needs to store n2b coasting point esteems, it registers 3n2b - 1 flops for every vector. Rather than the mean square mistake remove measure if weighted separation measure is utilized as a part of the outline of a vector quantizer the many-sided quality increments from 3n2b - 1 to 4n2b - 1 flops for each vector. The computational unpredictability of an Unconstrained Vector Quantizer is given by condition (4.25) Where n is the measurement of the vector b is the quantity of bits allotted to the vector quantizer. The Memory necessities of an Unconstrained Vector Quantizer is given by condition (4.26) Thorough pursuit vector quantizers accomplish most minimal twisting to the detriment of multifaceted nature and memory prerequisites at higher piece rates. So to make the vector quantizers more reasonable for vectors of bigger measurement and higher piece rates auxiliary limitations are forced on the outline of a vector quantizer or codebook. One method for accomplishing this is to break down the codebook into a Cartesian result of littler codebooks i.e., C = C1 * C2 * C3 .... .....*Cm. The favorable position with littler codebooks is that the computational many-sided quality and memory necessities can be diminished to an extremely incredible degree. This is on account of the quantity of bits utilized for codebook age will be isolated among the arrangements of the disintegrated codebook [12, 18]. Cases of item code vector quantization procedures are Split Vector Quantization (SVQ), Multistage Vector Quantization (MSVQ), Split-Multistage Vector Quantization (S-MSVQ), Switched Split Vector Quantization (SSVQ). In this theory two item code vector quantization methods are proposed they are: Switched Multistage Vector Quantization (SWMSVQ) and Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization (MSSVQ) procedures [54, 72]. The primary burden of Unconstrained Vector Quantizer is that the multifaceted nature, memory prerequisites are high and the age of codebook is an extremely troublesome errand as vectors of full length are utilized for quantization with no auxiliary requirement. Subsequently more number of preparing vectors and bits can't be utilized for codebook age. With these imperatives the quantizer can't create better quality quantized yields. So to enhance the execution of Unconstrained Vector Quantization strategy a notable method called Split Vector Quantization has been created. The idea driving Split Vector Quantization is that, in it vectors of bigger measurements are splitted into vectors of littler measurements and the bits designated to the quantizer are separated among the (parts). Because of part the measurement of a vector gets diminished henceforth more number of preparing vectors and bits are utilized for codebook age. Accordingly the execution of quantization is expanded, the multifaceted nature and memory prerequisites are diminished. In any case, the fundamental drawback with this system is that, because of part the straight and non direct conditions that exist between the examples of a vector will be lost and the state of the quantizer cells will be influenced. Accordingly the ghostly mutilation increments marginally. This expansion in ghostly contortion can be repaid by expanding the quantity of preparing vectors and utilizing more number of bits for codebook age. The quantity of parts in this kind of quantizer must be restricted in number generally the vector quantizer will go about as a scalar quantizer. In Split Vector Quantization the preparation succession utilized for codebook age will likewise be splitted into vectors of littler measurement and each split of the preparation grouping is utilized to produce isolate sub codebooks, there by free vector quantizers exist and the bits must be distributed to every one of them. Subsequently less number of bits will be accessible at each quantizer, the computational many-sided quality and memory necessities gets diminished as they rely upon the quantity of bits apportioned to the quantizer and on the measurement of the vector to be quantized. The square chart of a three section Split vector quantizer is appeared in Fig 4.5. From Fig 4.5 it can be watched that a vector S1 of measurement n is quantized by part it into sub-vectors S11, S12, S13 of littler measurements. Every one of these sub-vectors are quantized utilizing their particular codebooks. In this work the request of the channel is taken as 10 thus the LSF vector contain 10 tests and these 10 tests are splitted into three sections of 3, 3, 4 tests [54, 73-75]. From consequences of Split Vector Quantizati>

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