Endocrine System


Diabetes is a disease that occurs when blood glucose (sugar in the blood) is too high (Rosenthal and Burcham, 2018). The body produces insulin, it is a hormone that is created in the pancreas that works to help the sugar (glucose) that comes from food, into the cell to nourish and energize it. When the body is either not making enough or is not making any insulin at all, it causes the sugar to build up within the blood. This occurrence can cause many health issues that include, heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations due to the abundance of insulin within the bloodstream (Kamat, 2015).

Type 1 Diabetes and Medications Best that Cover

There are different types of diabetes that may occur however the main types are Type 1, Type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, it occurs when the pancreas isn’t making any insulin to nourish the cells at all. The body will attack its own pancreas because it will appear as foreign. In the event to prevent health damages, this can cause, there is artificial insulin used to keep blood sugar levels from getting too high within the bodies system. Depending on the type of insulin used, the bodies glucose levels will be covered. These three forms of insulin work to do just that, they bind to the bodies bloodstream when injected to act as a form of insulin. These insulins are injected subcutaneously and once opened for use; Insulin vials are sensitive to different temperatures. Once the cap is removed from the vial and the rubber stopper is punctured, the vial should be stored in a refrigerated temperature (2 to 8 degrees Celsius) the medication is good for one year after its purchase.

Humalog-works in 5-15 minutes of injection, its onset is 1-2 hours this medication is best used when a blood glucose level is high and immediate action is needed to take place and lower the level down.

Humulin N-works 30-60 minutes from the time of injection. Its onset is 2-4 hours. This medication is best used for management of insulin levels that require coverage over a period. The coverage takes a little more time to kick in than the Humalog. It also binds within the bloodstream to act as a covering agent for the release of insulin.

NPH Humulin N-works in 1-3 hours of injection. Its onset is 5-7 hours. This type of insulin is usually used for those who require insulin coverage at a more later time of the day, perhaps in the early evening. Some people with diabetes type blood sugar levels tend to drop at certain time of the day, therefore, needing a drug that will cover the bodies intent to drop the glucose level.

Type 2 diabetes and Medications that best Cover

Type 2 diabetes has been named the most common form of diabetes in adults. This type is usually caused by the lack of production from the pancreas to produce insulin or the bodies resistance to accepting the cells. Type 2 diabetes usually do not always require insulin injections such as type 1 however, some come in pill forms such as Metformin, Glucophage, glimepiride, and Glipizide. The body still needs coverage for the lack of insulin it requires to maintain its energy. These oral medications lower the amount of glucose that our liver makes an helps your body use insulin sufficiently (Tuso, 2016).

Gestational Diabetes and the Type of Medication that Best Covers

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that happens during a women’s pregnancy. Due to the placenta releasing a lot of hormones, the glucose release is amongst them. This also decreases the glucose to sustain enough insulin in the body. Most cases, mothers are placed on type 2 diabetic medications that are safe but effective. Metformin and glipizide are the most commonly used in gestational diabetes.

Juvenile Diabetes and the Type of Medication that Best Covers

This type of diabetes is like type 1 diabetes, however, it is seen in patients under the age of 25. The medications for this type of diabetes mimics that of type 1 with the management of coverage. They are injectable artificial forms of insulin that cover the bodies lack of insulin production.

Side Effects of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Medication

Both type 1 and Type 2 diabetic medications although effective may cause side effects. With type 1 injections, risk of skin infections from improper injection when injecting the medication. It is pertinent to wipe the site with alcohol prior to injecting to avoid any possible bacteria from entering the puncture site. Some numbness and tingling in the hands and feet may occur, nausea and vomiting, excess thirst and fatigue are also known side effects as well. In more severe cases, some insulins have been known to cause kidney issues.

Sample Solution