1) What was the primary problem faced by Facebook in regards to leadership and diversity?
2) How was the problem handled by Facebook?
3) What would you recommend to this organization or leader to change about their organization, if anything? and why?
4) How will the behavior of the leaders of the organization impact the employees?? clients? customers?
5) what did the leader of organization so well that you might recommend to other companies? why?
6) substantiate your recommendations from I/O coursework
7) What are the major learning points from this problem? What should others emulate? What should others learn from to do differently?
Presentation The significance of hormones and interferons (IFNs, for example, prolactin, development hormone and erythropoietin has been perceived for the most recent decades. The disclosure of a plenty of different cytokines accompanied the sub-atomic science period. Cytokines, which we presently know manage all parts of cell separation and improvement, speak to an assortment of basically unmistakable ligands that predicament to various classes of receptors. A significant subgroup of cytokines, which can tie to receptors named Type I/II cytokine receptors, contains about 60 components. From an immunology viewpoint, these cytokines, including IFN-γ, Type I IFNs, settlement animating components and numerous interleukins, are noteworthy for compelling safe and fiery reactions, starting inborn resistance and organizing versatile safe instruments. 1[JAKs and STATs in Immunoregulation and Immune-Mediated Disease] Cytokines' organic capacities predominantly rely upon cytokine-interceded quality constraint or actuation. As of now, primary techniques for the treatment of invulnerable reaction and related maladies against cytokine reactions are restraining cytokine receptors (organic specialists) and managing related cytokine flagging pathways (little particle inhibitors). Endeavors have been made for a considerable length of time to grow little atom resistant modulators, which accompany points of interest contrasting with biologic operators of as of now accessible biologic specialists, including accommodation and the desire that they would be fundamentally more affordable. 2[Novel little sub-atomic therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis] Janus kinase (JAK) family is one of the most significant and famous sub-atomic focuses for treatment. As appeared in Fig.1, JAKs family incorporates JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2). JAK3 and TYK2 are for the most part answerable for invulnerable reactions. JAK1 and JAK2, which have known for expansive capacities, have jobs that range from have hematopoiesis and barrier to development and neural improvement. JAKs specifically partner with the cytoplasmic spaces of different cytokine receptors and cytokine restricting enacts JAKs, which thusly phosphorylate cytokine receptors. Individuals from the sign transducers and activators of translation (STAT) proteins family, including STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5A, STAT5B, and STAT6, are then permitted to specifically tie to cytokine receptors. Details, as DNA-restricting proteins, in this manner become tyrosine-phosphorylated, which enables them to dimerize, translocate to the core, and direct quality articulation. STAT1, STAT2, STAT4, and STAT6 have limited capacities, assuming jobs in immunoregulation and host guard. It has been accounted for that total insufficiency of STAT3 or STAT5A and STAT5B is deadly in mice. These proteins reliably have the wide, basic capacities. 3[JAKs and STATs in Immunity, Immunodeficiency, and Cancer] Fig. I: Signaling initiates when the Ligand instigates receptor dimerization; II: This brings the receptor related Jak kinase into pairing, empowering them to equally trans phosphorylate one another. The kinases, presently enact, phosphorylate a distal tyrosine on the receptor; III: This receptor phosphoryl buildup is perceived by the SH2 space of a STAT protein, bringing them into the receptor complex, where they actuated by tyrosine phosphorylation; IV: The initiated STAT proteins are currently rendered skillful for heteo-or homodimerizations, advertisement atomic interpretation (4), promotion GAS authoritative. Jak-hatchet means a Jak kinase that can be either indistinguishable from an alternate structure Jak-a. Detail a means a STAT protein that can be either indistinguishable from or not the same as Stat-a. The a-chain of the receptor ties ligand. while the β-chain transduces signals. [transcriptional reaction to polypeptide ligands: the JAK-STAT pathway] [Janus kinases: segments of numerous flagging pathways] Up until this point, change investigations of all protein subtypes have demonstrated that JAK family assumes a fundamental job in the event and advancement of resistant maladies. There is a colossal number of cytokines that sign through JAKs, and changes and polymorphisms of qualities encoding JAK kinases have been connected to infections of invulnerability. For instance, JAK3 intervenes all gamma-cytokine flagging. Accordingly, it renders changes in JAK3, including the phenotype of gamma-insufficiencies and prompts SCID.4,5 Loss of TYK2 work prompts increasingly minor immunodeficiencies.6 a lot of proof from genome-wide affiliation contemplates has affirmed that JAK is available in the pathogenesis of immune system maladies. For instance, TYK2 is related with SLE, and JAK2 polymorphism is related with Crohn's infection and Bechet disease.7-9 [Type I/II cytokines, JAKs, and new procedures for treating immune system diseases]. What's more, examinations on JAK-STAT pathway for conceivable other clinical signs are still in progress. Particularly, the usage of JAK-STAT to manage tumor microenvironment has brought about incredible enthusiasm for therapeutic chemists.10 [STATs in malignant growth aggravation and insusceptibility: a main job for STAT3] A few surveys have been distributed as of late on JAK-STAT pathway with accentuation on its inhibitors, natural capacities, and various methodologies of directing JAK-STAT motioning in the resistant framework. 22,29,44–51 It is important to … !! We evaluated the most recent little atom modulators of JAK-STAT pathway which are right now in clinical research, in light of … .!!!!/arranged by… THE BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION OF JAKs JAK Enzyme Structure and Signaling The JAKs, the generally enormous proteins (120−130 kDa) of the tyrosine kinase family, have two kinase areas including a genuine kinase space and an imaginable latent pseudo-kinase domain.5 There are 90 protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), a large number of which serve critical functions.11-13 PTKs can be additionally partitioned into the two principle subgroups, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor, or cytosolic, tyrosine kinases. RTKs contain an extracellular ligand restricting space, intracellular cytoplasmic kinase area and transmembrane locale. The cytoplasmic PTKs can be separated into nine subfamilies including the sarcoma (Src), C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), Activated CDC42 kinase (Ack), central bond kinase (FAK), tyrosine kinase communicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (Tec), Fes , spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), Abl , and Jak classes. [Selectivity and remedial hindrance of kinases: to be or not to be?] The area structure of JAKs. The areas JH1–JH7 depend on arrangement similitude of four known JAKs. JH1 is the kinase space, which contains two tyrosines that can be phosphorylated after ligand incitement. JH2 is the pseudo-kinase space. The JH6 and JH7 areas intervene the authoritative of JAKs to receptors.14 JAK family has a high level of arrangement homology, the most noteworthy homology saw in the reactant space. These compounds contain seven distinctive homologous districts (JH) and four structure areas (Figure). One of JAK's highlights is the two basically related spaces JH1 and JH2.15 JH1 is the dynamic kinase reactant area, while JH2 is known as a pseudo kinase area that doesn't have a synergist work yet is thought to assume a key job working together with JH1.16 Interestingly, ongoing work has indicated that the JH2 area of JAK2 may adversely control the JAK2 work by phosphorylating the basic buildups inside the JH2 domain.17 The JH3 and JH4 areas are essentially assume a basic job in balancing out the affirmation of the JAKs, while the areas JH5-JH7 (FERM space) have been accepted to collaborate with the JH1 area just as connect legitimately with the intracellular space of the cytokine receptor.18,19 Upon cytokine official and conformational changes, the JAKs are actuated and become phosphorylated particularly in the enactment circle of the kinase (JH1) space on tyrosine deposits. [Discovery and Development of Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitors for Inflammatory Diseases] As of now, the exact elements of the pseudo kinase space (JH2) just as JH3-JH7 areas are still under scrutiny. The grouping of the JH3-JH7 space isn't like any of the portrayed protein themes. Considering the assortment of communications and capacities performed by JAK kinase relatives, it appears to be conceivable that these areas encourage some key capacities, for example, protein-protein cooperations, enlistment of substrates, and so forth. [Janus kinases: parts of various flagging pathways] The particular tyrosine deposits in the area of the initiated JAK phosphorylated receptor cells are equipped for framing an enrollment site for STATs. The enlistment of STAT receptors likewise makes JAK phosphorylate STAT, prompting its dimerization and consequent movement to the core, which ties to explicit DNA restricting locales that control quality interpretation prompting changes in cell work. [Discovery and Development of Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitors for Inflammatory Diseases] JAK JAKs was discovered when different strategies were endeavored for recognizing novel protein tyrosine kinases. The principal JAK kinase, called TYK2, was gotten when the T cell library was screened utilizing low stringency hybridization techniques.20,21 Only different individuals from the JAK family are distinguished and described, and the extraordinary structure and capacity of TYK2 gets clear. Polymerase chain response (PCR) of savage oligonucleotides over the extreme saved kinase area of individuals from the protein tyrosine kinase Src family prompted the recognizable proof of incomplete cDNA clones of JAK1 and JAK2.22 The full-length cDNA of JAK1 and JAK2 was then cloned utilizing a halfway cDNA section as a probe.23,24 Their discoveries and a few different individuals from the tyrosine kinase family added to the utilization of the abbreviation JAK (Just Another Kinase). Resulting sequencing considers have indicated that the JAK group of PTK is fundamentally unique in relation to different classes of PTK by the nearness of extra kinase spaces. So as to express this extraordinary s>GET ANSWER