1. Answer the following questions assuming the interest rate is 8 percent.
Time Value of Money Problems
a. What is the present value of $1,000 to be received in four years?
b. What is the present value of $1,000 in eight years? Why does the
present value fall as the number of years increases?
c. What will be the value in seven years of $12,000 invested today?
d. How much would you pay for the right to receive $5,000 at the end of year 1, $4,000 at the end of year 2, and $8,000 at the end of year 10?
e. How long will it take for a $2,000 investment to double in value?
f. What will be the value in 20 years of $500 invested at the end of
each year for the next 20 years?
g. A couple wishes to save $250,000 over the next 18 years for their child’s college education. What uniform annual amount must they deposit at the end of each year to accomplish their objective?
h. How long must a stream of $600 payments last to justify a purchase price of $7,500.00? Suppose the stream lasted only five years. How large would the salvage value (liquidating payment) need to be to justify the investment of $7,500.00?
Rate of Return Problems
i. An investment of $1,300 today returns $61,000 in 50 years. What
is the internal rate of return on this investment?
j. An investment costs $750,000 today and promises a single payment of $11.2 million in 23 years. What is the promised rate of return, IRR, on this investment?
k. What return do you earn if you pay $22,470 for a stream of $5,000 payments lasting ten years? What does it mean if you pay less than $22,470 for the stream? More than $22,470?
l. An investment promises to double your money in five years. What is the promised IRR on the investment?
m. The projected cash flows for an investment appear below. What is the investment’s IRR?
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.