• Introduce the action-forcing event
• Include the question your client asks
• The question normally includes the word “policy”
• Connect the problem to a policy.
Assessment of the Problem
• What is the underlying problem – is there a more complex explanation?
• Can you provide measures of the problem?
• Recent history, or timeline – what decisions and policies got us here?
• How does your policy affect the problem – connect the problem to your policy.
• Be sure to clearly identify the policy – where can the reader obtain it?
• Local information – reports and news articles
• Scholarly information about the problem
• Best Practices – successful approaches from other jurisdictions
• Introduce the stakeholders – specific officials representing groups with different interests and points of view about the problem and possible solutions.
• Text inside of the tables can be in 10-point font.
• The “Definition/Measure of Success” refers to the stakeholder’s qualitative or quantitative test of success for a solution to the problem.
Source of Influence
Explanation of the Problem
Perception of Crisis
Proximity to Problem
Ability to Fix Problem
Definition/Measure of Success
Essential to Solution?
• Explain what your client should learn from the table.
• Introduce the options for policy changes to improve the problem
• The options have to be changes to the policy referenced in your client’s question.
Description of Policy Change
Source of Option Idea
Mechanism of Effect
Position of 1st Stakeholder
Position of 2nd Stakeholder
Position of 3rd Stakeholder
Degree of Consensus
• Summarize important differences about the policy options.
• Briefly explain your approach to assessing the policy options.
Description of policy change
• Explain important findings of your assessment.
• What factors are most important in distinguishing the options.
• Explain your recommendation – the policy option you are supporting.
• Identify important arguments against the policy you recommend, and offer a rebuttal