Answer the following questions for each reading:
- What are the key concepts?
- What does the author imagine is their central claim?
- What is the evidence offered in support of this claim?
- Who is the intended audience?
- Whom is the author arguing with/against?
Health is also an important factor at the prenatal level. As previously mentioned, SES is a strong predictor of engagement in certain behaviours. Intelligence has also been found to be associated with particular behaviours. For example, research has shown that lower intelligence is associated with maternal smoking (Mortensen et al, 2005)and with foetal alcohol syndrome (Kodituwakku et al, 1995). From this, we can infer that children who’re born into families of a low socioeconomic status, develop at a slower physical rate than those in different circumstances. Deary (2008)found that birth weight was positively correlated with intelligence, suggesting that physical development can influence intelligence in the long term. Infants aren’t independent, they rely on other people in order to survive and need to be fed and cared for by their parents. Consequently, their infant behaviour is completely determined by this care- they have very little contribution to their wellbeing. Differences in intelligence based on SES have been detected from as early as two years old (Stumm & Plomin, 2015).As infants have very little dictation over factors concerning their health, it is likely that their parents are the root of the issue at this stage. When discussing health, it is important to consider the effects of mental health as well as physical health. Research has indicated that children from low socioeconomic status communities develop academic skills at a slower rate and that the ‘economically disadvantaged’ are more likely to experience cognitive delay (Hillemeier et al, 2009). Furthermore, it was also found that children experiencing cognitive delay are at a higher risk for poor mental health throughout their lives (Hillemeier et al, 2009). Poor mental health could result in an increase in health-related absences, or poorer institutional performance. Sufferers may have issues regarding motivation or a lack of confidence, and this could impact their performance. Thus, in the long term affecting their intelligence. Early estimates of intelligence inheritability were around 70% (Murray & Heinstein, 1994). More recently, it’s been suggested that nature and nurture aren’t two separate entities, and there is instead an interaction between the two. (Makharia et al, 2016) suggested that children in poverty don’t develop to their ‘full genetic potential’ due to the environment they’re presented with, and this could be because genetics are triggered by the surrounding environment. We can infer that this is a consequence of a lack of resources (Hazzouri et al, 2017). This supports the idea that income is a probable explanation for the relationship between SES and intelligence. One’s access to resou>GET ANSWER