All flags, without distinction of nationality, shall have free access to the whole of the coastline of [the Congo]…All differential dues on vessels…are forbidden…All the Powers exercising sovereign rights or influence in the aforesaid territories bind themselves to watch over the preservation of the native tribes, and to care for the improvement of the conditions of their moral and material well-being, and to help in suppressing slavery, and especially the slave trade. They shall, without distinction of creed or nation, protect and favour all religious, scientific or charitable institutions and undertakings created and organized for the above ends, or which aim at instructing the natives and bringing home to them the blessings of civilization.
-General Act of the Congo Free State
Then answer the following question:
How did Europeans justify their empires to themselves?
Watch Triumph of the Will . Then use it as a source to answer the following question:
How did Nazism attract followers?
The world knows how hard we strove to avoid the civil war. Our objectives in fighting the war to crush Ojukwu’s rebellion were always clear. We desired to preserve the territorial integrity and unity of Nigeria. For as one country we would be able to maintain lasting peace amongst our various communities; achieve rapid economic development to improve the lot of our people; guarantee a dignified future and respect in the world for our prosperity and contribute to African unity and modernization. On the other hand, the small successor states in a disintegrated Nigeria would be victims of perpetual war and misery and neo-colonialism. Our duty was clear. And we are, today, vindicated.
-Announcement of the victorious Nigerian government after the end of the Biafran War, 1970
Land of the rising sun, we love and cherish,
Beloved homeland of our brave heroes;
We must defend our lives or we shall perish,
We shall protect our hearts from all our foes;
But if the price is death for all we hold dear,
Then let us die without a shred of fear.
-Anthem of Biafra, defeated by the Nigerian government in the Biafran War
Then answer the following question:
What factors determined whether decolonization remained peaceful or turned violent?
Watch an episode of any non-American TV show, such as the following: http://www.mtvshuga.com/show/series-4/mtv-shuga-4-episode-1/.
Then answer the following question:
Has the world become “flat” – that is, have differences between societies disappeared? Connect your answer to the themes of the course, especially imperialism and the race to catch up to Europe.
Presentation Legislative issues in India has persistently advanced from a realm lead under the Mughals, to imperialism under the British, foundation of multi-party majority rules system to the present try different things with coordinate popular government. This paper has been composed with the mean to comprehend and examine the structure of legislative issues in India from the British Era to the rise of popular government, based on three articles by Sudipta Kaviraj. The examination will be isolated into two areas; the primary discussing the possibility of advancement and foundation of a pioneer state; and second on the foundation and working of vote based system in the post-provincial state. Innovation and COLONIAL STATE As per Sudipta Kaviraj innovation isn't homogenous. There doesn't exist a standard frame or structure of western social orders that can be replicated in all social orders; recorded actualities and encounters characterize 'advancement'. The adjustment in social practices which could emerge because of coercive activity or change by will make the experience interesting. Substantiating this he gives the case of change of training in Bengal towards Western goals prompting vanishing of the conventional schools. Further, the procedures that constitute advancement are plural in nature because of their verifiable mix. Evaluating the functionalist approach in Marxism he expresses that taking the diverse chronicled records such solid useful qualities that characterize the entrepreneur structure wouldn't exist. An industrialist change by means of amassing in all areas doesn't mean a homogenous arrangement of social relations communicated as innovation. By this he fundamentally implies that considering that every division would be extraordinary as for their item relations and social relations, the demonstration of capital amassing without anyone else would not prompt innovation. It is the grouping of the procedures and interconnection that characterize the idea of advancement. The change of India was a state driven process through these cutting edge instruments without powers like the bourgeoisie or the low class. A cutting edge state has two angles to it; as an instrument its general public's ability for aggregate activity and, as a thought it's a general public in light of the rule of sovereignty. Collective office and working by means of aggregate activity are the mainstays of present day society. Giving illustrations he clarifies how bureaucratic organization, aggregate cognizance towards a patriot thought are altogether coordinated towards setting up a procedure of all around coordinated aggregate activity. It is these cutting edge forms based on aggregate activity through which the legislature defines arrangements and takes choices. Here is the place he expresses these approaches of society are reflexive. We can characterize them reflexive in two detects, first that these gadgets of aggregate organization are coordinated to society as much as to different zones (like clash, war inclined territories). Also, the viability of these cutting edge gadgets were continually checked and changed if there should be an occurrence of disappointment. This levelheadedness achieves choices to organize their own structures and gain from their own particular encounters, and this is the thing that Kaviraj implied by recursive legitimization. This general thought of attracting to encounters and organizing society as needs be is the reason social orders would not imitate the west. Each advanced state is consequently novel in its arrangement relying upon recorded factors and factors of quality of aggregate office and balanced idea. The uniqueness of structure of society in India lies in its social structure .This was the position framework based on which estimation of human life and his part was set up in the public arena. Standing framework was the premise of Hindu religion and even with the beginning of the Mughal Empire there was no adjustment in the principal structure of social request. There existed a double arrangement of energy with both Hindu and Islam standards. Moreover, the political power was constrained to simply 'official' forces (of securing social foundations or keeping up peace) based on social power represented under the position framework. Present day sway as a thought was outsider as even the political pioneers were subservient to this social request and along these lines did not hold any forces to reconstitute it. The ensuing procedure of colonization in itself was extraordinary as it was met with scarcely any restriction to start with; rather it was in some sense upheld by the world class. The British entered Bengal as an income raising body and attempted to pick up control through business and income exercises. This was anything but difficult to catch as the customary society was not sorted out around the energy of state, they didn't control the whole working of the state. English presented 'state sway' and 'diverse circles' of social life characterizing the political structure in society. This prompted buildup of capacities and union of energy in light of European history to detail a state through methods of disciplinary power, structure of welfare state and majority rules system. Before innovation administrative capacities existed through various organizations yet the British amassed them at the middle. This is the thing that made a 'pioneer state' by utilizing disciplinary systems to bring the general public under scholarly control. This thought of sway set up an express that had authoritative power which could basically judge and rebuild social organizations like the station framework, and this was superimposed by creating basic sane idea among the educated person. Realism conceived because of scholarly development ignored Edward Said's affirmation that Orientalism prompted accommodation of insightfulness (Kaviraj, Modernity and Politics in India 2000). This statement of regular levelheaded idea likewise made solid relationship among the advanced world class. With the foundation of 'Run of Law' and more significance gave to group grievances instead of people, bound together weight bunches started detailing by the world class. This rationale of associationism was the production of a pioneer 'common society'. This common society set out to be the national pioneers of tomorrow. Besides, the self-constraint of the express, the division of the political and social powers in unmistakable circles and the possibility of self-decide that developed of it conceptualized patriotism in India. National awareness was realized through provincial patriotism as articles in vernacular dialects were brought into print. A thought of the country express that would imitate advancement (Europe) would require a solitary dialect and a homogenous culture. In any case, in India with assorted variety; a pluralist approach with a constitution conceding provincial self-rule and setting out the government structure of forces was settled on by the pioneers. Present day governmental issues was in this manner made not through impersonation of the West but rather considering the recorded procedures and a reluctant procedure of organizing social request as indicated by the particularities of society.>GET ANSWER