Geology Quiz

_ provide evidence of past life, and thus help geologists understand how life, and the environments they lived in, changed throughout Earth’s history.

a. Relative dating

b. Fossils

c. Rocks

d. Minerals
Historical Geology history typically covers ____.

a. Tectonics, Flora and Fauna Life and Sedimentation processes

b. Weather, Astrology and biomechanisms

c. Astrophysics, Metaphysics and Quantum mechanics

d. Age of events, number of organisms and growth potential
The contact between a layer of Devonian age shale and Jurassic age sandstone is termed a(n) ______.

a. Nonconformity

b. Angular unconformity

c. Disconformity
Which of the following describes a fundamental problem with estimating the age of Earth using fossils?

a. Little fossil evidence remains from the precambrian.

b. Little fossil evidence is available to study Earth’s history.

c. Fossils do not appear in any regular order within strata.

d. The fossil record through the Phanerozoic is discontinuous.
The knowledge of Historical geology is applicable to today’s world.
Unconformities represent a former surface that was exposed to erosion. As a result, the layer above the unconformity often contains inclusions of the layer below the unconformity, which helps geologists determine the sequence of events because inclusion are always _ the layer in which they are contained.

a. Younger than

b. Older than

c. The same age as
The precambrian spans fore than 4Ga and 87% of Earth’s geologic history.

a. True

b. False
Sea level rise and fall is also described as _______ and ____.

a. Transgression and Regression

b. Evolution and Conception

c. Mass Extinction and Adaptive Radiance

d. Climate Change and Global warming

Referring to the diagram above, path A is _

a. cooling and uplift

b. weathering and deposition

c. cooling and crystallization

d. burial and lithification
Mass extinctions are a geologic fact though the reasons behind them may vary.

a. True

b. False
With the concept of global warming and climate change, which of the following is geologically false?

a. The polar and ice caps melting.

b. Transgression occurring

c. Regression takes place

d. Coral bleaching occurs
According to the principle of uniformatarianism,

a. all of the planets formed from a uniform solar nebula

b. early Earth was covered by a uniform magma ocean

c. geologic processes we observe today have operated in the past

d. geologic process in the past operated at the same rate as they do today

The volcanic ash overlays shale in a sequence. The ash is dated to be 744,000 years old. What is the best estimate of the age of the shale?

a. 744 thousand years.

b. Older than 744 thousand years.

c. Younger than 744 thousand years.
The most recent agreed epoch now included in geology is the age of man or _______.

a. Anthropocene

b. Homo sapien

c. Eocene

d. Quaternary
Which science is not used within the Earth sciences?

A. Geology

B. Biology

C. Physics

D. None of the above; Earth Science makes use of all of these sciences.

E. Chemistry
Which one of the following is a trace fossil?

a. biozone

b. clam shell

c. worm burrow

d. dinosaur bone
Examples of chemical sedimentary rocks termed evaporites are __________________.

a. Halite and gypsum

b. Sandstone and Conglomerate

c. Granite and Basalt

d. Shale and Siltstone
Geologists use the principle of superposition to determine _________________________.

a. how long ago a fossil organism lived

b. absolute ages for geologic events

c. the relative ages of rocks in a vertical sequence

d. the duration of a marine regression
Which of these is not a Principle of geology?

Principle of Superposition

Principle of Cross cutting relationship

Principle of Original Horizontality

Principle of Time scale

The motions of the three types of plate boundaries would be described as divergent, convergent, and static.

a. True

b. False

c. Neither

d. Both
Radiometric dates applied to sedimentary rocks produce ages that are _.

a. Just as accurate as when the technique is applied to igneous rocks.

b. Younger than the sedimentary rock.

c. Older than the sedimentary rock.
Which of the following geologic materials will yield the most reliable radiometric age?

a. Minerals in sediments that have been heated by a lava flow.

b. Zircon crystals in volcanic ash.

c. Minerals in a fossil shell.

d. Weathered minerals in sediments.
The principle of fossil succession is most similar to what other principle of relative dating?

a. Superposition

b. Inclusions

c. Cross cutting

d. Original horizontality

Sample Solution