As pressures on the coastal ecosystems continue to mount due to the growing problem of poor plastic disposal, there is a need for frameworks that can be used in conceptualizing the complex environmental and sustainability challenges. The Social-Ecological System (SES) framework developed by Elinor Ostrom (2009) is one such approach that has been adopted in efforts to try and manage the growing problem of plastic waste in the environment. The effects of plastics are hazardous to the environment and living beings, whereby in some cases, the impact may be long-lasting. The SES approach is particularly important for this study as it helps in articulating and structuring the challenges towards the development of policies that promote sustainability (Ostrom, 2011).
Examine the issue of plastics using the SES framework and to evaluate how governance of plastics can be improved through better policies that encourage and promote sustainability.
The use of plastics in society has been beneficial at a societal and economic level. However, the consequences of plastics wastes bring just as much a challenge as the opportunities that its use presents. The consequences of plastics range from economic, environmental and societal implications. The chemical ingredients of plastics are toxic chemicals, for example, DDT, BPA, and Phthalates can result in genetic changes and cause cancer in humans as well as other living organisms (Asante-Duah, 2017). The means of disposing plastics has been a challenge, and different stakeholders have put in efforts to determine the best options for disposal and one that would result in the least environmental? Health? consequences . So far, the preferred mode of disposal remains to be land or the soil . It has been challenging to control the entry points of plastics into the market and consequently into waste disposal sites. It calls for global and local governance to join hands and create responsive interventions that would control the littering hazard caused by plastics (Vince and Hardesty, 2017). Plastics are harmful in an extensive manner since they can litter all parts of the environment including land, water and even cause air pollution as well as inflict substantial harm to the open layer of the atmosphere, which results in global warming (Lebreton et al., 2017). Further, it is not possible to completely decompose plastic due to its polyethylene chemical structure.
In efforts to guard the effects that result from the use of plastics, most states in the US have employed measures and strategies that govern the production as well as the use of plastic products. Non-governmental organizations that work for the welfare of the people and environmental organizations realize the impact that plastics have on the environment. Therefore, these organizations, in collaboration with government, focus on controlling the use of plastic. Such organizations educate the public on the use of eco-friendly products and advocate for the eradication of plastics from the face of the earth. Some of the measures include the use of plastic bags in a limited manner, introducing alternative means and enacting legislation that governs the use of plastics. For instance, plastics that have already been produced should be recycled continuously while also encouraging the use of eco-friendly products and banning the production of plastic bags (Jambeck et al., 2015).
However, one of the issues that still hinder proper governance of plastics is the status of collective actors, which include agencies and government bodies that are charged with the control of plastic waste management systems. Vogt et al. (2015) state that although actors in an SES framework maybe collective entities, in most cases they are usually individual agents that act on behalf of such organizations. The norms that different bound organizations should be fully implemented and supported to oversee accountability in the defiant businesses on plastic use. This, in turn, makes the responsibilities of each organization in the governance system much easier to understand and evaluate its response to the implemented policy on the plastic ban. McGinnis and Ostrom (2014) argue that the rules and regulations that define the responsibilities of involved organizations and their agents should be considered as properties of the governance system.
The governance of plastics in the society is a crucial aspect given that the use and disposal of these synthetic products pose potential effect to the users, the society, and the future generations. However, pollution of the environment by plastic wastes is a difficult reinstatement and a governance problem. Like most ecological challenges, plastic contamination is trans-boundary, and the responsive governance proposals are required to be just as complex. It is ideally not likely that intervention programs by the government and private contributors will restore the environmental condition that was there before the pollution. Efforts for plastic governance present an example of the challenges in environmental restoration. Successful governance and environmental advocacy would, however, help to improve the environmental situation and provide means that govern the effective use of plastics. The governance of plastic use is only possible if the society can adopt a holistic approach that integrates all stakeholders and utilizes scientific expertise, market-based strategies and community participation (Lebreton et al., 2017). This is why Ostrom’s SES framework is very important in this context since it geared towards the attainment of ecological sustainability. This framework is , particularly important as it can offer analysts, ecologists, policymakers and concerned parties with the foundation for diagnosing specific issues that contribute to the growing problem of plastic wastes in US water bodies that affect marine life and the general population (Vogt et al., 2015). It calls for the society to be equipped with necessary knowledge provoking the public to reduce the use of plastics while implementing more responsive governance strategies to curb the problem. Subramanian (2000) states that the most important aspect of the integrated plastic waste management approach is to minimize the amount of plastics used as well as employing effective plastic waste management policies.
In conclusion, there is a need to conduct more research that incorporates SES framework in the field of plastics pollution and its governance. The issue of plastics affects all people in the society, and since everyone uses it, it is also easier to control the problem. Plastics cannot be decomposed, and the effects caused by these synthetic products to the environment are extreme thus contributing greatly to severe problems with pollution. However, if properly implemented, the SES framework can address the problems caused by plastics and maintain a clean environment .
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Lebreton, L. C., Van der Zwet, J., Damsteeg, J. W., Slat, B., Andrady, A., &Reisser, J. (2017). River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans. Nature communications, 8, 15611.
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Patients' at first tend to see nurture either alone on landing in mishap and crisis offices, or in conjunction with a therapeutic expert. Along these lines, the length of time that an attendant goes through with a patient has a tendency to be longer than most other wellbeing/restorative experts (Godfrey, 2012). Ward medical attendants who take a shot at doctor's facility wards, give care and support to conceded patients all through their entire remain. This period of time went through with the patients enable them to be comfortable with the patient, consequently enabling them to perceive changes in a patient's wellbeing and furthermore to distinguish any new needs. Frequently, patients need to see in excess of one wellbeing/medicinal expert in their stay at the clinic, because of their wellbeing needs. Regardless of these experts having pro abilities to help or treat particular wellbeing worries that the patient may have, regularly the wellbeing suggestions that are given to the patient should be performed routinely notwithstanding when the patient isn't within the sight of this authority. In this way, associated wellbeing experts have a tendency to prompt, look for the help of, or hand particular proposals over to medical attendants. This is regularly observed amongst attendants and physiotherapists in versatility proposals, this is on the grounds that medical caretakers frequently need to assemble a patient out of hours as prescribed by the physiotherapist (Godfrey, 2012). This keeps away from the patient waiting for a physiotherapist on ends of the week, or to wind up disappointed due to being in one position for drawn out stretches of time and it additionally underpins the general healing center administration point of better patient results. Essentially patients with complex physical issues, insignificant versatility or neurological intricacies, for example, stroke patients, should be consistently moved to stay away from weight ulcers creating. Also, recapturing portability steadily is frequently part of a patient's stroke restoration program. Clear rules and preparing are given, as suggested by NICE, to medical caretakers to perform safe moving and dealing with methods on patients. These rules exhort 2-3 prepared experts to move a patient who is bed bound, contingent upon the patient's development capacity and weight (Jacob et al, 2007). On the off chance that this is a stroke quiet this should be done on proposal of a physiotherapist (RCP, 2012). Accordingly, it is essential for attendants to discuss viably with other wellbeing and social care experts when moving and taking care of a patient who may have complex needs, as medical caretakers may require pro proposals by the physiotherapist, or the patient may have medicinal hardware connected to them which should be taken care of deliberately or evacuated briefly. Safe moving and taking care of systems as a major aspect of a collaboration not just advances great wellbeing and social care hone, it additionally diminishes the danger of damage to a medical attendant. This is especially vital as moving and taking care of wounds have been the most well-known reasons for staff nonattendance for a time of 3 days and longer between the times of 2007 and 2013 (Anderson, 2014). A key component of doctor's facility mind is data sharing through 'ward rounds' finished by specialists and other wellbeing experts. The point of this is to give tolerant care which can be conveyed in an opportune way, however it additionally permits the multidisciplinary group required with the patient to design their future care and medications. Medical attendants input by means of answering to partners their judgment and perceptions on the patient's present wellbeing state isn't essential for better care arranging later on, however it is likewise vital on the grounds that medical caretakers can frequently voice the inclinations that patients have communicated to them, subsequently advancing the standard of patient focused care (RCP and RCN, 2012). Besides, because of the immediate care ward medical caretakers give on their day of work for the duration of the day to allotted patients, they regularly perceive the general decay of a patient's wellbeing and prosperity before other wellbeing experts and specialists. In this manner, it is critical for the wellbeing and prosperity of patients' for medical caretakers to liaise with specialists routinely to deal with the difference in manifestations as quickly as time permits. Despite the fact that patient care arranging is returned to and archived routinely by wellbeing and medicinal experts when changes are required for the patient, formal multidisciplinary gatherings permit enhanced results for the patient, a case of an enhanced result is when Stroke Early Discharge Support Teams can release patients prior, enabling them to more probable be autonomous sooner in their day by day undertakings (Clarke, 2013). The multi-disciplinary group who has added to this confirmation has comprised of pro medicinal experts, different claim to fame specialists, dietitian, a care administrator, attendants and at times a social laborer. Attendants, because of having 'previous history' medicinal notes and the learning of relations who visit the patient, can typically give the word related advisor and the dispensed social laborer with data on key relations of the patient that perhaps valuable to contact preceding release. Additionally, nurture through discussion can accumulate data on the patient's living circumstance at home. This is vital in release making arrangements for stroke patients as some of the time they can't impart completely and obviously their living condition at home, as stroke can affect a person's capacity to convey verbally and physically. Likewise, if patients have few or no relations living with them, they may require home care through nursing staff or telecare gear which can bolster dangers of damage or enable people to caution crisis mind administrations by means of tactile hardware when they have a fall or another stroke which comes about them to fall. Despite the fact that word related advisors will do evaluations of nature which the patient dwells in (EKUHFT, 2015), medical attendants can frequently give the specialist understanding on any issue the patient has had in their stay at the healing center, a case of this might be that the patient experiences issues bringing themselves down to sit on the can, the word related advisor would more often than not ask for a 'snatch/hand rail' to be fitted in the patients home to help them to do this activity. Persistent care arranging by means of between proficient working is additionally principal to kids who have been conceived with Cerebral Palsy. Attendants with pro parts, for example, 'Wellbeing guests', give a group based support of cerebral paralysis patients and their families. This contrasts to the part of attendants on the ward as Health guests survey the strength of the patient in reference to their living condition and general wellbeing needs, subsequently enabling them to recognize the more extensive wellbeing needs of the family as well (Alexander, 2014).. Because of cerebral paralysis being a non-reparable condition the kid and the family/carers of the kid will routinely get medications and support from a broadened system of wellbeing and social care experts and furthermore instructive pros and care staff (NHS, 2014). In this manner, wellbeing guests should have the capacity to make effective between proficient relations with experts who are outer to the wellbeing and social care industry, for example, instructive clinicians, by understanding the part and administration that the expert is giving to the patient. It is additionally imperative to comprehend parts because of the referral frameworks we have in the United Kingdom, both inside healing facility and group mind. Moreover, approaches can vary between the nearby specialist, the NHS and private medicinal services suppliers and the kid and his/her family may have had a particular care bundle which the wellbeing guest may not know about (Know your rights, 2015; NHS, 2013). Additionally, Health guests frequently need to liaise with experts who are not utilized by the NHS or another private social insurance supplier however by a nearby specialist. This can mean the caseload is allotted in an unexpected way, holding up times may vary and strategies for referral may contrast as well. Hence, to guarantee that the patient's change is proficient and positive from quick healing center care to getting to group based administrations, medical caretakers should know about the fundamental structure and coordinations of different administrations. This mindfulness should be brought all the more particularly up in the workplace for more youthful understudy attendants or graduate medical attendants who may not know the contrast between certain expert parts, as in spite of licensed nursing programs having modules or lessons in multidisciplinary work on covering the significance of knowing the parts of other wellbeing and social care experts, once in a while there is disarray between masters who bolster patients or administration clients with the same condition(s). An exemplary misconception is an understudy nurture attempting to comprehend the contrast between an emotional wellness social laborer and a psychological well-being medical attendant, who can both work for group based groups and might be utilized by the nearby specialist (The Masked AMHP, 2012). >GET ANSWER