- Gerald Graff begins his essay with the view that we generally associate “book smarts” with intellectuals and “street smarts” with anti-intellectualism. Graff then provides an extended example from his early life to counter this viewpoint. What do you think of his argument that boyhood conversations about sports provided a solid foundation for his later intellectual life? What support does he provide, and how persuasive is it?
- Graff argues in paragraph 13 that the intellectual world is much like the world of team sports, with “rival texts, rival theories . . ., and elaborate team competitions.” Can you think of any examples from your own experience that support his assertion? In what ways do you think “the real intellectual world” is different from the world of team sports?
- So what? Who cares? Graff does not answer these questions explicitly. Try doing it for him: Write a brief paragraph saying why his argument matters and for whom.
- Graff argues that schools should encourage students to think critically, read, and write about areas of personal interest such as cars, fashion, or music–as long as they do so in a serious way. What do you think? How would you respond to Graff’s claim?’
ry, it would show the affable, officious Gravina as one of the causes of the moral decadence in the Spanish Navy”. Vargas Ponce proposes that the lack of proper leadership as the reason for a dysfunctional navy. Without a proper system of management over a ship through its officers, no coordinated attack could take place. For the British, quality officers permitted the fleet at Trafalgar to work the ships at maximum efficiency. Tactics were not decisive, on the contrary, a decisive factor was the dedication and skill displayed by British officers. Put simply, French officers could not match the British. In conclusion, the battle of Trafalgar was a necessity for the British. British trade was being contested, the Franco-Spanish fleet was on course to converge with the ‘Grande Armée’, and Britain was in dire need of fresh ships. The British fleet did use tactics as a mean to attack the French, sailing in two columns, launching perpendicularly at the French however, question arises as to whether Nelson’s tactics themselves contributed to the victory? Had it been the French who had used the exact same tactics as the British, the French would have been indisputably pulverized due to an inability for the columns to return fire before they crossed the enemy line. In my opinion, any capable British admiral could have led an equally decisive victory over the French. Factors that extended beyond mere planning and tactics such as the wind conditions, the expectation of British sailors to win, and superior fire rate of the British would have led to a similar outcome. All in all, overshadowed by other key factors, tactics did not play a vital role in the Battle of Trafalgar.>GET ANSWER