Examine the importance of the Great Awakening and its impact on the church.
continue creating their own set of ‘norms’ which subsequently allows for the spread of varying types of English. Kachru’s modal identifies the Inner Circle as ‘norm-providing’, the Outer Circle as ‘norm-developing’ and the Expanding Circle as ‘norm accepting’. These principles, however, have been questioned by linguists by negatively depicting aspects such as the Expanding circle (Canagarajah, 2006). The fact that multilingual speakers in the Expanding circle do not apply the same norms as the Inner circle when speaking English implies that the Expanding circle is not norm dependent. As the use of English around the world continues to expand and become deeply rooted in many countries, there is a divergence in the way in which English is utilised. English in Europe – Politics and Education The European Union has a five-level language policy which encourages the use of all twenty-four official languages within the EU (Gazzola, 2016).The system ensures fair usage and publication of EU related materials to its members. The five-level policy includes; Non-legally binding documents, official documents from the European Commission, EU studies and reports, EU court documentation and the EU parliament (Wright, 2009) One of the recurring myths surrounding the use of English within the EU is that English is only one of a selection of official languages used by the EU (Phillipson, 2017). Even though Irish and Maltese were upgraded by the EU in 2007 to have official language status, English is still used by these two counties (Phillipson, 2017). An indication perhaps that there is a preference to communicate in English. English teaching was slowly introduced to western European and Scandinavian schools throughout the 1950’s and 1960’s (Council of Europe, 2002);central and eastern European countries including Russia and Italy started English in the late 1980’s in the post-Stalinist period. This early introduction could perhaps be related to the growth of the UK and US economies and seen as an integral part of western European and Scandinavian countries growth and inclusion. Furthermore, all members of the EU made it compulsory to learn another language at varying school age levels and at varying times up to 2001 (Eurydice, 2001). The teaching of English in European schools is evidence that perhaps suggests national governments recognised the importance of>GET ANSWER