Heart Failure

Order Description
Carol is a 68-year-old African-American female who went to her doctor’s office because of a “racing heart”. She has been experiencing a worsening of shortness of breath over the last 2 months. Over the last 3 weeks, she noticed swelling of her ankles and feet. Carol states that she feels weak and tired most of the time. She has been awakened in the middle of the night with severe shortness of breath despite sleeping on 3 pillows. Carol’s past medical history includes: a myocardial infarction several years ago, high cholesterol, gastroesophageal reflux, and osteoarthritis. She has allergies to nuts, shellfish, and strawberries. Carol has a family history of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Carol has been a 2-pack-per-day cigarette smoker for 30 years. She has been trying to quit smoking since her heart attack. Carol states she occasionally drinks alcohol

Identify the type of heart failure based on data presented in the case study. Express your understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of heart failure




Sample Solution