Personality is commonly defined as “.. enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation and behaviour that are expressed in different circumstances.” (Burton, Westen & Kowalski, 2019, p. 707)
- Historically there have been two perspectives on what contributes to personality
- The first is heredity – the organism’s inherited genetic code which provides an innate advantage or disadvantage over other organisms.
- The second is environment – the circumstances in which the organism finds itself including social setting and available learning opportunities.
- It is currently accepted that these two factors interact and both contribute to personality.
- However, your task is to use current research and argue that one is more important than the other.
- Write a brief essay which takes a stand on whether personality is determined primarily by heredity or environment.
- Search for the terms “heredity,” “environment”and “intelligence”
- To widen the search, you may want to include terms such as: nature, nurture, genetics, twin studies, etc.
- Select and download the full-text version of two articles which both support your stance.
This paper analyses gender performativity among men and women who in the highly gendered occupation of fashion modelling, and it includes famous so-called drag queens who have become iconic figures in this industry. Gender, as ethnomethodologists and feminist theorists have claimed, is an issue of “doing”, and not passive being (Butler, 1990; West and Zimmerman, 1987). In the same stance, Judith Butler (1990, 1993) has observed that gender performativity has been proclaimed as potentially making “gender trouble”. Initially, her work caused much philosophical and phenomenological debate and focused on singular sites of transgressive practices, such as drag (Bell et al., 1994). In a postmodernism approach this paper analyses four drag queens who are famous performer and icons in the fashion industry. Although Drag performers have been discriminated from many social arenas, their art and performance comprises three important sociological concepts: gender performativity, simulation, and ethnometodhology. In the fashion industry there are not rigid methods when it comes to modelling. It is a flexible world with no rules or codes. However there exist normative gender scripts and gender roles which models must perform. Heteronormativity has perpetuated certain roles in the dichotomy of feminine and masculine. Those roles have been imposed in society through different agents of socialization. As Butler claims (1993), there is a heterosexual matrix that has established codes and norms in a dominant way. Therefore, modelling has become an important arena that enables and reproduces such heterosexual narratives of gender that have been highly criticized by feminists. These representations result from day to day activities to everyday work on the part of models. If modelling images are fundamental for understanding gender, it is then important to understand something of the gendered nature of the work behind the scenes. The different bodies of the many models that are part of this industry, have also become pieces of ethnographic study where gender performativity takes places to construct the narrative of femininity and masculinity. In the case of the so-called Drag queens, they have escalated to different arenas of social inclusion. Such issue could be framed within social media dynamics. In the last couple of years, social platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, and Snapchat have created social spaces that have become mediums of socialization. In this particular subject, some accounts of famous drag queens in Instagram have been approached to understand their dynamics and how in their characterizations they enhance the principles of ethnomethodology and simulation. Drawing on two separate ethnographic projects on fashion models in New York and London, we investigate the bodily practices and gender performances of male and female models. Fashion modelling is the professionalization of multiple types of gender performance; it is a market in which performances of masculinities and femininities are use>GET ANSWER