Discuss this statement by drawing on sociological theories and concepts. Discuss how this may impact on you as a health practitioner.
Students should write an essay addressing the following topic:
Hierarchy and power are intrinsic to the current health care system in Australia. Discuss this statement by drawing on sociological theories and concepts. Discuss how this may impact on you as a health practitioner.
Students should read widely prior to completing the essay. This includes all required readings but should move beyond these to include other sources.
A bibliography is available on Learnline to help you with this process.
For any essay of this length you will need to include 9-11 references.

Majority of the references (7-9) should be based on journal articles, books, book chapters and peer reviewed papers. You can use websites but citations from Wikipedia are unacceptable.
Typically a good strategy is to use the set readings to cover the key sociological concepts and ideas and then if you are using an example issue (e.g. eating disorders or the effects of alcohol) do some further reading so that you have evidence relating to your chosen example.
Assessment Criteria:
The essay will be expected to address the following criteria:
Demonstrated understanding and application of appropriate sociological theories, concepts and perspectives
Application of sociological concepts in critical analysis.
Key concepts, debates and issues are identified and critical reflection is applied to the topic.
The topic is discussed in adequate depth and wide reading is evidenced in both the analysis and the examples utilised.
Evidence of wide reading
Essay reads well and is clear and concise
Adherence to academic conventions of essay writing (e.g. APA referencing; writing style)
Format must be consistent and legible.
Calibri, Arial or Helvetica font, size 12 with 1.5 line spacing and ample margins for written comments
Footer must contain your details: Surname, Initial, Unit Code, Assignment Name
e.g. Smith, J. HCS210 Assessment One
Marking criteria
1. Argument and Analysis
The following table illustrates the strengths and limitations of your argument
Element Limited Medium Strong
A good paper will use the introductory paragraph to clearly and simply state the aims of the paper.
A good essay will make it clear that sociology is about the study of social life and that it is an important focus for health practitioners because social factors can have a major influence on how health conditions occur and how they are treated in different locations. It will also very briefly explain that there are different approaches to sociological analysis and that these are called perspectives.
A good essay will mention that a key perspective in health is the biomedical model, which views health in terms of biological processes within individuals. It will mention how this perspective is valuable in clinical practice and research, but does not adequately capture the impact of hierarchy and power on health.
A good paper will define both of these key concepts. It will discuss key propositions from major theorists and theories across each concept.
A good paper will draw on relevant data to support the discussion. A really high level paper will also comment on the data in terms of its relevance and methodology. For studies that significantly relate to your argument you should comment on any issues that the reader might need to consider or be aware of.
A good paper will draw together the various threads of the discussion e.g. theories and particular health issues to identify and explore, in your own words, the key implications for health practitioners in the Australian context. It should be noted that can choose to focus on an example issue, which you situate within the Australian health care system
This is a cumulative element, which relates to the extent to which the paper was a unified piece of work that illustrated a deep understanding of the relevant topic. Work that scores highly here is well on the way to what would be a publishable standard in academic journals because the overall paper has a clear focus and points are consistently backed up with evidence and clear logic.

2. Academic Writing (Structure, Expression and Referencing)
The following tables include some core elements of academic essay writing and indicates the extent to which they were consistently incorporated into your paper.

Element Major issues Minor issues Strong
A good introduction is one that makes clear the specific topic or question that essay is addressing. It also mentions, without going into any detail, the main theories and concepts that will be discussed in the paper.
A good paper will use descriptive information to lead into deeper critical sections or passages, in which you that draw threads from different sources of information together so that you can use your own words to articulate the practical implications or consequences of your research into the topic.
A good conclusion does not introduce new information, nor does it simply restate the essay. Rather, it should reinforce the most important takeaways from the essay and offer suggestions for solutions or further exploration that could build on your work.
Element Major issues/ errors Minor issues/ errors Strong
A good paper will use wording precisely – whether the wording is relatively simple or technical the main focus is on using appropriate wording for the context. Language should also reflect that used by the authors that the paper is drawing upon.
Good papers will have no spelling errors, as these can be easily corrected with proofreading. They will also consistently adopt either the UK (preferred) or US spelling conventions rather than fluctuate in between (except where a direct quotation is used).
Good papers will have sentences that make sense and link well to the previous and following sentences. The subject will also be made clear at all times e.g. when using ‘this’ to refer to something it should be abundantly clear what ‘this’ actually is.
Good papers will have paragraphs that are not too long and have a clear topic sentence that articulates a key idea, which is then discussed/reinforced in the remaining sentences in the paragraph. They should also flow from one to the next with sentences that start with phrasing such as: “Given the previous point…” or “A related issue is…”)

Element Major issues or errors Minor issues or errors Strong
Good paper papers will draw on research from academic sources that have a review process, rather than obscure websites or ‘study notes’ websites which present a secondhand perspective.
Good papers will draw on a range of sources, including core readings from the various learning modules and some that you have located yourself via searching. In high level papers sources will offer both theoretical and data/research contributions to the paper.
Good papers will clearly indicate with in-text citations the work of authors they are drawing upon. Where one author is referenced for multiple points, each main idea is referenced rather than just at the end of a paragraph. The paper will also mix direct quotations and paraphrasing, or adapting ideas to your own words.
Good papers will have a match between the in-text references and the reference list entries, will have correct spelling, and will be consistently punctuated and formatted according to the relevant APA style guide.

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.