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an excitation temperature of 5.5K, therefore unlike H2, the rotational transitions of CO are readily excited even in quiescent clouds; in extension, the J=2 rotational band can be excited at only 16K. CO is favourable as the J-band transitions are strong emitters of radiation as the rotations decay quickly in the molecule. The CO observed from MC’s originates from the central bulk of the cloud that is protected by the self-shielding layer. CO as a tracer has many advantages as: i) it emits in mm/sun-mm band and can therefore be directly observed by ground based telescopes, ii) it is abundant within the ISM and is readily observable in both emission and absorption spectra (Mckee), iii) the ratio of CO to H2 is found to be near constant (Dickman 1970) 1.1.1 – The H2 – CO Conversion Factor The masses, surface densities (∑H2) and column densities (NH2) of H2 in MC’s is derived from measured values for CO using a conversion factor XCO or CO. The initial empirical relation between CO and H2 was derived by Dickman (1970) and is given as: █(N_H2=(5.0±2.5) × 〖10〗^5 N_13 #(1.1) ) where N13 is the column density of 13CO. Eq. 1.1 was limited in that it did not account for visual extinction in the clouds or the presence of helium, and was only valid up to a column density of NH2 ≈1016cm-2; it is generally shown that the column density of MC’s is much higher than this threshold for the majority of clouds. Sandstrom (2013) proposed a modified empirical derivation of Eq. 1.1 that makes use>GET ANSWER